The Leap ~ Merging Of The 3rd, 4th And 5th Dimensions – Kin 56 ~ Yellow Self-Existing Warrior

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The Leap ~ Merging Of The 3rd, 4th And 5th Dimensions ~ Kin 56: Yellow Self-Existing Warrior

By Teri Wade.

Do you remember me from our first days on Lumeria? Back then we were just light bodies.

Many of us lived within the now, the present until Earth’s resonance fell in vibration, into the lower dimensions.

When Earth fell into the 4th then the 3rd dimensions our light body hid in our increasingly dense form.

Now your light body is hidden inside your costume of flesh.

Your light body is awaiting the birth of the merging of the 3rd, 4th and 5th dimensions.

You don’t realize this but all three of these dimensions have always existed together on this plane within the physical reality on Earth.

When you merge with the 4th and 5th dimensions you cannot deny these higher worlds anymore.

The ones that continue to live in this 3rd dimensional reality who resist this higher vibration will call you illogical and worse but those people will eventually deal with those consequences.

What’s happening is higher perceptions are going to become more normal and the so-called logical ones still living in 3D will be recognized as being limited to what’s right in front of them.

These logical ones who are coming from such a limited reality will not be able to except the shift.

They will not believe that it is possible therefore, their perceptions will not be calibrated to perceive the 5th or even the 4th layer of reality.

Since these logical ones will not allow themselves to see the 5th they will not notice that the reality is changing.

This is because their limited perceptions will separate them from this new reality when the dimensions merge.

These logical ones live through fear, they fear that inside voice not being right because they’ve been programmed to believe an outside source to be the voice of reason.

When that is all an illusion. They are afraid to make that leap from their guidance from an outside source to their inner guidance because of their fear of not being able to continue their survival in this physical reality.

They fear that Inner voice is wrong and the outer world is right.

“My dear physical one I wish to tell you that it is fear that has blocked your forward movement however, you are part of a group, a group that is here to assist Earth in its planetary Ascension.

Most of you who have chosen to listen to that inner voice have also chose to ignore that voice of the ego.

Basically, you need to be able to trust yourself enough to reveal yourself. That means you are coming to the awareness of your role.”

Soon, the memories of having the fear of you entering into your physical body from your light body will happen.

You don’t remember now but you will recall the terror when you entered your 3rd dimensional body.

We are now reversing the transformation. But, unfortunately fear is always involved with change.

Remember, the human species has been through devolution and evolution and those memories of those past lives and deaths are all encoded in your DNA.

All these memories are beginning to surface due to this frequency shift.

The remainder of your 3rd dimensional life is very short and I know many of you know this.

This light that you see before you begins as just a speck and the more you walk towards it, it gets brighter and brighter.

When this 5th dimensional light shines within your physical body you can feel how the layers of vibrations merge with that 5th dimensional outer layer of your physical body which is kind of like a nebula cloud around you.

And within those layers is your 4th dimensional self. Remember, your 4th dimensional form shape-shifts and morphs in out of those realities like in a dream.

The fourth dimension is like a bridge between a very dense form of reality and a very high vibrational existence.

I call it the preparation stage for this immense leap in our evolution.

Your process of surrender is allowing the 4th and 5th dimensional frequencies to slowly integrate while in physical form.

This has never happened before in such a dense, physical body.

Hence, what was once very dense is now being infused with finer vibratory frequencies.

Eventually, every cell and atom in your body will vibrate in tandem with your 5th dimensional self. Heaven!

Lightbody

The Leap

 

If you order any product on Amazon through the following links the proceeds will go towards our Ecuador healing retreat center.



 

 

Elizabeth Peru

3 hrs

THE VENUS RETROGRADE: A HUGE IMPACT…Have you noticed that since mid-May, your feelings of SELF-LOVE and WORTH have been bubbling up to the surface? Of the 4 planetary retrogrades currently underway, it’s VENUS that’s influencing us the most. It only comes around once every 18 months. So, this is YOUR time of the year to overhaul WHO you are within intimate relationships 💗

And this week, with a WAFT of mental energy stirring communication, you can make some empowering moves.

 

Listen to me speaking with ‘you’ about HOW this week can be your most progressive of May. For over 17 years, I’ve been encouraging humanity to wake-up, become self-empowered and to harness the authority within. Not only will you help yourself, have a more productive and rewarding life, but you’ll also be more helpful to others https://elizabethperu.com/the-tip-off 🌟

Hare in the Moon Astrology

19 hrs

Sunday May 24 -31 2020

A heads up! Incoming Gemini Information Overload…..

Last Friday’s Gemini New Moon has just activated the 8 week eclipse tunnel from May 22 to the Cancer New Moon on July 20th. Starting next week on June 5th, get ready for not 2 but 3 wild card eclipses one after the other. When you emerge from the turbulence later in the summer, you’ll see how these sideways escalators- time/space shifts-have changed everything yet again, giving you an entirely new perspective on the virus, the Re-Set and the next 6 months.

If you’re a Way Finder, Sensitive, Maverick or Creative… welcome to superfast tracked Phase 2 Embodiment. You might think you’ve been there, done that, got the t-shirt, but this 2020 Phase 2 Process is going to demand even greater individual responsibility and more individual embodiment than in Phase 1.

This week, there are 6 planets/points in Air sign Gemini -Sun, Venus, Vesta, Node of Fate, Mercury- literally bringing a welcome breath of fresh air from the dense suffocating Earth energy.

Gemini’s ruler Mercury is at his Tricksterish best/worst in his own sign in contact with unpredictable Uranus, slippery Neptune, Mars, the Galactic Centre, Vesta and the Node of Fate. On Thursday 28 May, the Messenger crosses the world axis into 0 Cancer- the volatile eclipse degree of the approaching June 21st Solar Eclipse -one of those rare Hinge in History events.

Expect more incoming data than ever before- a veritable Tower of Babel of crossed wires, misinformation, fake news along with new information/decisions from governments contradicting themselves.

In your own life, this is not about trying to make sense of anything – how could you when, with all the retrograde change agent planets and incoming multiple eclipses, the ground is going to be pulled out from under your feet? This is about becoming even more skilful and adept at Inside/Out Thinking -understanding that your mind is not a camera but a projector with all the implications that brings.

Read your free May 24-31 Week Ahead + Your Own Sign Forecasts at: www.hareinthemoonastrology.co.uk

New! Get ready to be Fast Tracked into 2020 Phase 2 if you’re a Way Shower, Sensitive, Maverick or Creative. For much more, sign up to my new June 5D Report :” Another Roll of the Eclipse Dice”: www.hareinthemoonastrology.co.uk

Prepare for June’s wild card eclipses-buy my essential Eclipse Guide:” Making Eclipses Work for You”: www.hareinthemoonastrology.co.uk

 

If you order any product on Amazon through the following links the proceeds will go towards the Ecuador healing retreat center.



24MAY

Belenger items are revealed to all.

Harbingers of Higher Realms are seen.

Martins delight.

 

source: gaiaportal.wordpress.com/2020/05/24/belenger-items-are-revealed-to-all

 

The Heart of Buddhism – To be a kind person to Buddhayana – the path of Buddha

18 hrs

What is given the name ‘Buddha’ ~ Padmasambhava

All that appears and exists, samsara and nirvana, arises from your own mind-A mind that cannot be grasped, free from center and edge.

In the natural state of vast equality, intrinsic and uncontrived, Remain undistracted in great effortlessness!

Whatever thought you think, it arises as the space of wakefulness -The Awakened One is nothing other than this.

When self-cognizant wakefulness is fully actualized, That is what is given the name ‘buddha!’

~ Padmasambhava – The Lotus Born

Thanks to: The Three Jewels (https://www.facebook.com/Ngakpainbc/)

 

The Tzolkin Times

16 hrs

Kin 56 ~ Yellow Self-Existing Warrior

‘Self-Existing’ is the name for the number 4 and it’s key words are ‘Definition, Form and Measure.’ The fourth day of any wavespell is about taking a closer look at the
details. Reading the finer print and scrutinizing, so you may proceed armed with the knowledge necessary to move forward with the wavepsell. Yesterday we flew with the Eagle and saw things from a higher perspective, now we must swoop in closer to see what is going on.

Today is Yellow Warrior and the key words associated with it are ‘Intelligence, Fearlessness and Questioning’. Yellow Warrior invites us to go on a mission, to accept a quest. Contemplate today what you could achieve using your willpower and thinking like the warrior. Wield a sword and don’t be shy about marching forth. As it is a number four day and that represents definition, today’s mission therefore will be about the quest for information. The Warrior loves to asks questions and it has a thirst for knowledge so the number goes very well with the day.

The Guide for the day is Yellow Human which represents ‘Channeling, Wisdom and Free Will’, this suggests that using your intuition to guide your actions today will led your quest and help you discover the answers.

The Challenge of the day is White Worldbridger, so if you were born on Worldbridger day will find it tough going, like everyone else, you must use your will power and be a warrior. Yes bridges may be difficult to cross today but if you read the details of the instructions…that will gain you permission to cross over.

The Occult power is the Red Serpent which invites you to shed your old skin and emerge feeling like a new person. In this magical position the Serpent is powerful and can really help you transmute any poison within you. This symbolizes letting go of pain or fear or anything that does you no good.

The Ally is the Blue Night the dreamer of the Tzolkin. Consult one if you need help today, their dreams can inspire. If you are a Blue Night, you can be very helpful to others today influencing people with your great imagination.

Christina Papageorgiou

YELLOW SELF EXISTING WARRIOR
4 CIB – KIN 56
24 MAY 2020
🌈🗡🛡🏹💫🌈🗡🛡🏹💫

QUESTIONING FORM 🎁

MANTRA
I define in order to Question
Measuring Fearlessness
I seal the output of Intelligence
With the Self-existing tone of Form
I AM guided by the power of Free will.
🌈🗡🛡🏹💫🌈🗡🛡🏹💫

24/5/2020 = 24/5/22 = 6/5/4 —– COUNTING DOWN!!!

6/5/4 = 15 = 6

24 -Charisma/Magnetism/Joy
6- Heaven/Christ/Harmony/Romance
5- Liberation/Change/Transformation
4- Form/Structure/Foundation

KIN 56 = 11 = 2

11- Portal/Gate/Polarity
2- Twins/Partnership/Cooperation

Another POTENT day continuing the gifts brought by yesterday’s BLUE EAGLE, calling us to ACTION our DREAMS and our DIVINE purpose.

🚶💫🚶💫🚶💫

Day 4 in the RED SKYWALKER WAVESPELL of awakening, exploration and NEW ADVENTURES! Today we are working on the MENTAL plane, and using our minds to QUESTION what it is we need to SURRENDER, in order to SHAPE a new reality, and EXPAND our consciousness!

Yesterday we CLOSED the cycle of WAR and BATTLES on our beloved planet, GAIA! The RAINBOW🌈 WARRIORS 🗡🛡🏹 have gloriously ARISEN and are VICTORIOUSLY reclaiming this realm, in order to lead us into the LIGHT at the end of the RAINBOW. 🌈🌈🌈

TONE OF CREATION
SELF-EXISTING📦 Tone 4 operates in the MENTAL realm. ACTION – measures, POWER – defines, ESSENCE – form.
SELF-EXISTING number 4 takes form and we have ourselves a square shape.Self-existing, measuring and defining, very intelligent fascinated by self. We now have built a sturdy platform upon which further growth takes place.The WARRIOR plus the SELF-EXISTING tone are a very MIND focused energy.. leading to much mental analysis, questioning and defining today. The WARRIOR will necessitate that you define what FORM your DREAMS and the collective DREAMING of our Planet shall take in order to be created. It is time to build a SOLID FOUNDATION for New Earth together.

🌈🗡🛡🏹💫🌈🗡🛡🏹💫

CONSCIOUS SELF: YELLOW WARRIOR 🗡🛡 CIB is the Ancient COSMIC warrior who answered the CLARION CALL from GAIA to come from all corners of the Galaxy to assist her in Ascending to the New Golden Age. After a long, arduous battle, the RAINBOW WARRIORS have NOW fearlessly reclaimed their mighty SWORDS🗡 of POWER💥 and ARISEN in FULL SOVEREIGNTY👑 as the DIVINE WARRIORS of CHRIST – fearlessly defending and creating the DIVINE PLAN for human kind.

The WARRIOR is the brave revolutionary of ancient times, constantly QUEST-I-ON-ing our physical reality and the nature of our existence in order to LEAD us to a better world. CIB weilds his SWORD of TRUTH and cuts through all the extraneous packaging in order to get to the CORE of the package deep inside the box. The Warrior uses his intelligence to cut through the ignorance of the illusory world by challenging the status quo. His fearless spirit cuts through obstacles along the way, so that others may follow paths of increasing intelligence. The YELLOW WARRIOR banishes FEAR, so that you can see your true face bright and clear. Today you are asked to look at any MENTAL challenges and blocks. What are those FEARS, beliefs, and old programs that are restricting you from building your new life. What better thoughts can you construct that will assist you with majikally manifesting your goals? How can you use your mental acuity to define and shape your existance into a better LIFE for one and ALL? CIB fearlessly questions our actions in order to EXPAND and awaken to greater consciousness.

HIGHER SELF/GUIDE: YELLOW HUMAN EB Influences and emphasizes FREE WILL. EB and CIB are best mates, these two work in tandem as well as BEN and CIMI do. YELLOW HUMAN brings forth great mental capacity through his wisdom and intelligence, thus the WARRIOR has SUPER MENTAL abilities today. The YELLOW TRIBES are the RIPENERS – they get things done and bring them into fruition through concentrated FOCUS of intent. YELLOW HUMAN is strongly guiding the WARRIOR to align with DIVINE WILL today – to ensure he is fearlessly defending the DIVINE PLAN and not just recklessly battling for his own agenda. When the WARRIOR has a noble cause, he is elevated to DIVINE status as an instrument of the DIVINE – a true WARRIOR of CHRIST. As such he is then afforded DIVINE PROTECTION as he carries out his QUEST for TRUTH and JUSTICE.

YELLOW HUMAN helps the WARRIOR to raise his vibe to open his golden chalice and let the wisdom of Spirit to flow through, melting any FEAR, doubt or self derision in order to find the confidence, courage and belief in his innate abilities to KNOW the right path to take. EB guides the choices made by CIB leading to Divine outcomes so that the Will of God can take shape and form on this Earth realm.

🌈🗡🛡🏹💫🌈🗡🛡🏹💫

SUPPORT: BLUE NIGHT 🌃 AKBAL enables the WARRIOR to connect with his intuitive promptings which is necessary, as simply following the promptings of the MIND, can lead the Warrior astray. His MIND must align with his HEART and be guided by his instinct and intuition, that is his gut intelligence. If something does not sit right in his gut then his instincts are guiding him to CHALLENGE what is presenting. AKBAL will also reveal what lies deep in the abyss which takes great courage to unearth and FACE.

BLUE NIGHT also encourages the WARRIOR to pursue his DREAMS and knowingness, that there is a better path in which to tread. The WARRIOR will slash through the illusion and follow the yellow brick road to the treasures he intuitively knows lay on the path ahead. The SELF-EXISTING WARRIOR is fearlessly INTENT on measuring and defining how this DREAM of a better life, and better world shall take form. This NEW DREAMING of the collective forms the basis of his valiant QUEST, the reason he volunteered for this QUEST, and he will FEARLESSLY defend this DREAM at all costs until it has been made MANIFEST!

OCCULT/HIDDEN POWER: RED PLANETARY SERPENT🌏🐍CHICCUAN represents your basic motivations, instincts, desires, and your innate movement toward wholeness. RED SERPENT asks you to release all your Battles (particularly your INNER battles) and your FEARS, shed the skin of your past and step into the fires of alchemical transmutation. In this, rebirth is revealed. This desire is an innate response encoded in the depths of your being. RED SERPENT combines with BLUE NIGHT to ease your survival fears and old programmed instincts. We each hold a store house of chi within us. Unlock the VITALITY in your kundalini channel to release all blocks to your MANIFESTING the life and body of your DREAMS.

CHICCHAN is a PLANETARY SERPENT so he has the power to enable your ideas and projections to easily be made MANIFEST in the physical world. The PLANETARY tone also highlights the COLLECTIVE DREAM and the DIVINE PLAN for the whole of humanity. So CHICCHAN unleashes incredible PLANETARY POWER for the RAINBOW WARRIORS to succeed in their QUEST in creating this NEW WORLD.

A POWERhouse of creation energies exists within our being. Unleash the POWER, PASSION and LIFE FORCE that Chiccan provides to to fuel your desires and PERFECT the PLANETARY DREAM. PEACE ON EARTH for all Planetary kin. 🌈🌏💞

🌈🗡🛡🏹💫🌈🗡🛡🏹💫

CHALLENGE/GIFT: WHITE WORLDBRIDGER🌈🌉 CIMI The shadow challenges of WHITE WORLDBRIDGER include the FEAR of DEATH, endings and change. Reluctance or inability to LET GO and move forward, clinging to the old way of being. Death is a natural part of transformation. Sometimes we are brought to experience symbolic deaths such as loss, divorce, illness, or separation from others. Embrace these seemingly dark or difficult experiences; they will release you from attachments and expectations, clearing you to more fully receive the LIGHT creating more space for LOVE to fill the void. What are you afraid of in order to make the next step?

The transformation offered in CIMI is found in SURRENDER, release and forgiveness. Through DEFINING what is important we can more easily LET GO of what does not align with our new VISION. By releasing what does not fit in our new form, we can move forward and CIMI can build the bridge to the new. New relationships, connections, opportunities and grand new adventures, creating space for further soul expansion and growth to occur. Sometimes the WARRIOR’S greatest act is to spare the life of his greatest enemy, surrendering his fate into the hands of the DIVINE. In this way he can release the pursuit of retribution and realign with a greater destiny and QUEST.. Knowing when to SURRENDER and change course is a DIVINE act of humility and Spiritual maturity.

Choose to LET GO, and choose HARMONY, PEACE and ABUNDANCE! Allow CIMI to send out new golden threads to all the wondrous new connections you will be making in your new chapter. Remember at all times to release FEAR and choose LOVE. Ironically to do this we usually have to accept the DEATH of something old in order to build this new bridge to LOVE! Allow CIB the fearless Warrior to lead you over the rainbow bridge on your new QUEST to manifest and shape the NEW WORLD of your DREAMS.

NOTE: Warrior’s fearlessly charge into battle, so be wary of arguments, disputes and conflicts today. Thankfully the emotional charge is lessened today as the tone is in the MENTAL realm. However this may translate to VERBAL battles and arguments! Do not engage in PERSONAL battles but save your energy for the greater good – your Divine Mission and the PLANETARY focus! This elevates the focus of the Warrior to higher states of consciousness and thus accordingly his behaviour! WHITE WORLDBRIDGER can bring forth an end to battles in any arena. So disengage and FOCUS on PEACE and UNITY. OM AH OM!

Today’s question is “What do you need to fearlessly SURRENDER, in order for your DIVINELY directed ideas and DREAMS to take FORM?”

💙💚💛💜💗💙💚💛💜💗

Divine blessings for the realization of your great dreams to take FORM!

Namaste’ 🙏🙏🙏
In Lak’ech a la kin
Christina White Magnetic Worldbridger – KIN 66 🌏🌈

PICTURE CREDITS: Warrior of CHRIST DIVINE GRATITUDE to unknown Artist 🙏🙏

 

If you order any product on Amazon through the following links the proceeds will go towards the Ecuador healing retreat center.



King Arthur , Avalon and Camelot

Merlin and

 

The original Welsh form of the name Gwenhwyfar (or Gwenhwyvar), which seems to be cognate with the Irish name Findabair, can be translated as “The White Enchantress” or “The White Fay/Ghost”, from Proto-Celtic *Windo- “white, fair, holy” + *sēbarā “magical being” (cognate with Old Irish síabair “a spectre, phantom, supernatural being [usually in pejorative sense]”).[2][3][4][5]

Some have suggested that the name may derive from Gwenhwy-fawr, or “Gwenhwy the Great”, as a contrast to Gwenhwy-fach, or “Gwenhwy the less”. Gwenhwyfach (also spelled Gwenhwyach) appears in Welsh literature as a sister of Gwenhwyfar, but Welsh scholars Melville Richards and Rachel Bromwich both dismiss this etymology (with Richards suggesting that Gwenhwyfach was a back-formation derived from an incorrect interpretation of Gwenwhy-far as Gwenhwy-fawr).[6]

Geoffrey of Monmouth rendered her name as Ganhumara in Latin (though there are many spelling variations found in the various manuscripts of his Historia Regum Britanniae). The name is given as Guennuuar in the Vita Gildae, while Gerald of Wales refers to her as Wenneuereia. In the 15th-century Middle Cornish play Bewnans Ke, she was called Gwynnever. The 15th-century English author Thomas Malory wrote her name as Gwenever or Guenever (both spellings were used). A cognate name in Modern English is Jennifer, from Cornish.[7]

In medieval literature[edit]

Origins and family[edit]

Lady GuinevereHoward Pyle‘s illustration for The Story of King Arthur and His Knights (1903)

In one of the Welsh Triads (Trioedd Ynys Prydein, no. 56), there are three Gwenhwyfars married to King Arthur. The first is the daughter of Cywryd of Gwent, the second of Gwythyr ap Greidawl, and the third of (G)ogrfan Gawr (“the Giant”).[8] In a variant of another Welsh Triad (Trioedd Ynys Prydein, no. 54), only the daughter of Gogfran Gawr is mentioned. There was once a popular folk rhyme known in Wales concerning Gwenhwyfar: “Gwenhwyfar ferch Ogrfan Gawr / Drwg yn fechan, gwaeth yn fawr (Gwenhwyfar, daughter of Ogrfan Gawr / Bad when little, worse when great).”[9]

Welsh tradition remembers the queen’s sister Gwenhwyfach and records the enmity between them. Two Triads (Trioedd Ynys Prydein, no. 53, 84) mention Gwenhwyfar’s contention with her sister, which was believed to be the cause of the Battle of Camlann. In the mid-late 12th-century Welsh folktale Culhwch and Olwen, she is also mentioned alongside Gwenhwyfach. Later German romance Diu Crône gives Guinevere two sisters, including Queen Lenomie of Alexandria.

Guinevere is childless in most stories,[10] the exceptions being Perlesvaus and Parzival (Arthur’s son named Loholt or Ilinot) and the Alliterative Morte Arthure.[11] In the latter text, Guinevere willingly becomes Mordred‘s consort and bears him two sons, although the dying Arthur commands Mordred’s children to be killed (but Guinevere to be spared as he forgives her). There are mentions of Arthur’s sons in the Welsh Triads, though their exact parentage is not clear.

Other family relations are equally obscure. A half-sister and a brother (Gotegin) play the antagonistic roles in the Lancelot–Grail (the Vulgate Cycle) and Diu Crône respectively, but neither character is mentioned elsewhere. While later literature almost always named Leodegrance as Guinevere’s father, her mother was usually unmentioned, although she was sometimes said to be dead; this is the case in the Middle English romance The Awntyrs off Arthure (The Adventures of Arthur), in which the ghost of Guinevere’s mother appears to her daughter and Gawain in Inglewood Forest. Some works name cousins of note, though these do not usually appear more than once; one of them is GuiomarMorgan le Fay‘s early lover in the French romances.

Portrayals

Guinevere Takes Refuge in a ConventEdmund H. Garrett‘s illustration for Legends of King Arthur and His Court (1911)

The earliest datable mention of Guinevere (as Guanhumara, with numerous spelling variations in the surviving manuscripts) is in Geoffrey’s Historia, written c. 1136. It relates that Guinevere, described as one of the great beauties of Britain, was descended from a noble Roman family on her mother’s side and educated under CadorDuke of Cornwall.[12] Arthur leaves her in the care of his nephew Modredus (Mordred) when he crosses over to Europe to go to war with the Roman leader Lucius Tiberius. While her husband is absent, Guinevere is seduced by Modredus and marries him, and Modredus declares himself king and takes Arthur’s throne. Consequently, Arthur returns to Britain and fights Modredus at the fatal Battle of Camlann.[13]

Guinevere with Enid and Vivien by George and Louis Rhead (1898)

Early texts tend to portray her inauspiciously or hardly at all. One of them is Culhwch and Olwen, in which she is mentioned as Arthur’s wife Gwenhwyfar, but little more is said about her.[14] It can not be securely dated; one recent assessment of the language by linguist Simon Rodway places it in the second half of the 12th century.[15] The works of Chrétien de Troyes were some of the first to elaborate on the character Guinevere beyond simply the wife of Arthur. This was likely due to Chrétien’s audience at the time, the court of Marie, Countess of Champagne, which was composed of courtly ladies who played highly social roles.[16]

Guinevere and Iseult by William Morris (1862)

Later authors use her good and bad qualities to construct a deeper character who plays a larger role in the stories. In Chrétien’s Yvain, the Knight of the Lion, for instance, she is praised for her intelligence, friendliness, and gentility. On the other hand, in Marie de France‘s probably late-12th-century Anglo-Norman poem Lanval (and Thomas Chestre‘s later Middle English version, Sir Launfal), Guinevere is a vindictive adulteress and temptress who plots the titular protagonist’s death after failing to seduce him. She ends up punished when she is magically blinded by his secret true love from Avalon, the fairy princess Lady Tryamour (identified by some as the figure of Morgan le Fay[17]). Appearing as Queen Gwendoloena (Gwendolen), Guinevere has prophetic powers in the Latin romance De Ortu Waluuanii.

Such stories can be radically different in their depictions of Guinevere and the manners of her demise. In the Italian 15th-century romance La Tavola Ritonda, Guinevere drops dead upon learning of her husband’s fate when Lancelot rescues her from the siege by Arthur’s slayer Mordred. In Perlesvaus, it is Kay‘s murder of Loholt that causes Guinevere to die of anguish and she is then buried with Loholt’s severed head. Alternatively, in what Arthurian scholars Geoffrey Ashe and Norris J. Lacy call one of “strange episodes”[18] of Ly Myreur des Histors, a romanticized historical/legendary work by Belgian author Jean d’Outremeuse, Guinevere is a wicked queen who rules with the victorious Mordred until she is killed by Lancelot, here the last of the Knights of the Round Table; her corpse is then entombed with the captured Mordred who eats it before starving to death. Layamon’s Brut (c. 1200) features a dream sequence in which Arthur himself hacks Guinevere to pieces after beheading Mordred.[19]

Abduction stories

Lancelot Brings Guenevere to Arthur, an illustration for Andrew Lang‘s The Book of Romance (1902)

Welsh cleric and author Caradoc of Llancarfan, who wrote his Life of Gildas sometime between 1130 and 1150,[20] recounts her being kidnapped by Melwas, king of the “Summer Country” (Aestiva Regio, perhaps meaning Somerset), and held prisoner at his stronghold at Glastonbury. The story states that Arthur spent a year searching for her and assembling an army to storm Melwas’ fort when Gildas negotiates a peaceful resolution and reunites husband and wife.[21] The episode seems to be related to an Old Irish abduction motif called the aithed in which a mysterious stranger kidnaps a married woman and takes her to his home; the husband of the woman then rescues her against insurmountable odds.[22]

A seemingly related account was carved into the archivolt of Modena Cathedral in Italy, which most likely predates that telling. Here, Artus de Bretania and Isdernus approach a tower in which Mardoc is holding Winlogee, while on the other side Carrado (most likely Caradoc) fights Galvagin (Gawain) as the knights Galvariun and Che (Kay) approach. Isdernus is most certainly an incarnation of Yder (Edern ap Nudd), a Celtic hero whose name appears in Culhwch and Olwen, and who is Guinevere’s lover in a nearly-forgotten tradition mentioned in Béroul‘s 12th-century Tristan and reflected in the later Romanz du reis Yder where a similar character of Queen Guenloie of Carvain (possibly Caerwent) also appears as a lover for Yder.

Lancelot and Guinevere in Henry Justice Ford‘s illustration for Andrew Lang’s Tales of the Round Table (1908)

Chrétien de Troyes tells another version of Guinevere’s abduction, this time by Meliagant (Maleagant, derived from Melwas) in the 12th-century Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart. The abduction sequence is largely a reworking of that recorded in Caradoc’s work, but here the queen’s rescuer is not Arthur (or Yder) but Lancelot, whose adultery with the queen is dealt with for the first time in this poem. In Chrétien’s love triangle of Arthur-Guinevere-Lancelot, Guinevere consummated her love affair with Lancelot when Arthur and his knights are trying to rescue Guinevere from the land of Gorre. It has been suggested that Chrétien invented their affair to supply Guinevere with a courtly extramarital lover; Mordred could not be used as his reputation was beyond saving, and Yder had been forgotten entirely.[23]

In Ulrich von Zatzikhoven‘s Lanzelet (c. 1200), Valerin, King of the Tangled Wood, claims the right to marry her and carries her off to his castle in a struggle for power that reminds scholars of her prescient connections to the fertility and sovereignty of Britain. Arthur’s company saves her, but Valerin kidnaps her again and places her in a magical sleep inside another castle surrounded by snakes, where only the powerful sorcerer Malduc can rescue her.

Meigle stone detail

A version of the abduction of Guinevere is associated in local folklore with Meigle in Scotland, known for its carved Pictish stones. One of the stones, now in the Meigle Sculptured Stone Museum, is said to depict Vanora, the local name for Guinevere.[24] She is said to have been abducted by King Modred (Mordred). When she is eventually returned to Arthur, he has her condemned to death for infidelity and orders that she be torn to pieces by wild beasts, an event said to be shown on Meigle Stone 2 (Queen Venora’s Stone).[24] This stone was one of two that originally stood near a mound that is identified as Vanora’s grave.[24] Modern scholars interpret the Meigle Stone 2 as a depiction of the Biblical tale of Daniel in the lion’s den.

The 14th-century Welsh poet Dafydd ap Gwilym alludes to Guinevere’s abduction in two of his poems. In Diu Crône, Guinevere’s own brother Gotegrim kidnaps her and intends to kill her for refusing to marry Gasozein, who claims to be her rightful husband. Another such story takes place in Hector Boece‘s Historia Gentis Scotorum, where Guinevere is eventually taken by the Picts after Mordred’s and Arthur’s deaths at Camlann and then spends the rest of her life in captivity.

Medievalist Roger Sherman Loomis suggested that this motif shows that “she had inherited the role of a Celtic Persephone” (from the Greek mythology).[25] All of these similar tales of abduction by another suitor – and this allegory includes Lancelot, who whisks her away when she is condemned to burn at the stake for their adultery – are demonstrative of a recurring ‘Hades-snatches-Persephone’ theme, positing that Guinevere is similar to the Otherworld bride Étaín, who Midir, king of the Underworld, carries off from her earthly life after she has forgotten her past.[26]

French-inspired popular tradition

Further information: Lancelot

Queen Guinevere’s Maying by John Collier (1900). A scene from Malory, as recast in Idylls of the King

In French chivalric romances and the later works based on them, including the influential Le Morte d’Arthur by Thomas Malory, Guinevere is the daughter of King Leodegrance, who had served Arthur’s father Uther Pendragon and was entrusted with the Round Table after Uther’s death. In these stories, Leodegrance’s kingdom typically lies near the Breton city of Carhaise (the modern Carhaix-Plouguer). In the fields to the south and east of Carhaise, Arthur defends Leodegrance by defeating King Rience, which leads to his meeting and marriage with Guinevere. This version of the legend has Guinevere betrothed to Arthur early in his career, while he was garnering support. The following narrative is largely based on the Lancelot-Grail (Vulgate) prose cycle, telling the story of Lancelot and Guinevere in accordance to the courtly love conventions still popular in the early 13th-century France but soon afterwards directly condemned in the Post-Vulgate Cycle retelling that was a main source for Malory.

Lancelot and Guinevere by Herbert James Draper (c. 1890)

King Arthur’s sister Morgan shows him the room where Lancelot had painted his relationship with Queen Guinevere in Évrard d’Espinques‘ illumination for the Vulgate Cycle‘s La Mort du roi Arthur (1470)

When the great knight Lancelot arrives from the continent, Guinevere is instantly smitten. Following his early rescue of her from Maleagant (in Le Morte d’Arthur this episode only happens much later on) and his admission into the Round Table, and with Galehaut‘s assistance, she and Lancelot begin an escalating romantic affair that in the end will lead to Arthur’s fall. In the Vulgate version, the lovers spend their first night together just as Arthur sleeps with the beautiful Saxon princess named Camille or Gamille (an evil enchantress whom he later continues to love even after she betrays and imprisons him, though it was suggested that he was enchanted[27]). Arthur is also further unfaithful during the episode of the “False Guinevere” (who had Arthur drink a love potion to betray Guinevere), her own twin half-sister (born on the same day but from a different mother) whom Arthur takes as his second wife in a very unpopular bigamous move, even refusing to obey the Pope’s order for him not to do it, as Guinevere escapes to live with Lancelot in Galehaut’s kingdom. The French prose cyclical authors thus intended to justify Guinevere and Lancelot’s adultery by blackening Arthur’s reputation and thus making it acceptable and sympathetic for their medieval courtly French audience. Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur, however, portrays Arthur as absolutely faithful to Guinevere, even successfully resisting the forceful advances of the sorceress Annowre for her sake, except as a victim of a spell in a variant of the “False Guinevere” case.

The Rescue of Guinevere by William Hatherell (1910)

Arthur’s Tomb (The Last Meeting of Launcelot and Guenevere) by Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1855)

Years later, following the Grail Quest, Malory tells his readers that the pair started behaving carelessly in public, stating that “Launcelot began to resort unto the Queene Guinevere again and forget the promise and the perfection that he made in the Quest… and so they loved together more hotter than they did beforehand.” They indulged in “privy draughts together” and behaved in such a way that “many in the court spoke of it.” Guinevere is charged with adultery on three different occasions, including once when she is also accused of sorcery.[28] Their now not-so secret affair is finally exposed by Guinevere’s sworn enemy and Arthur’s half-sister, the enchantress Morgan le Fay who had schemed against her on various occasions (sometimes being foiled in that by Lancelot, who had also defended Guinevere on many other occasions and performed assorted feats in her honour), and proven by two of King Lot‘s sons, Agravain and Mordred. Revealed as a betrayer of his king and friend, Lancelot fights and escapes. Incited to defend honour, Arthur reluctantly sentences his wife to be burned at the stake. Knowing Lancelot and his family would try to stop the execution, the king sends many of his knights to defend the pyre, though Gawain refuses to participate. Lancelot arrives with his kinsmen and followers and rescues the queen. Gawain’s brothers Gaheris and Gareth are killed in the battle (among others, including fellow Knights of the Round AglovaleSegwarides and Tor, and originally also Gawain’s third brother Agravain), sending Gawain into a rage so great that he pressures Arthur into a direct confrontation with Lancelot.

Guinevere later returns to Arthur from Lancelot’s castle and is forgiven (Arthur starts to doubt that Guinevere ever betrayed him). When Arthur goes after Lancelot to France, he leaves her in the care of Mordred, who plans to marry the queen himself and take Arthur’s throne. While in some versions of the legend (like the Alliterative Morte Arthure, which removed French romantic additions) Guinevere assents to Mordred’s proposal, in the tales of Lancelot she still hides in the Tower of London, where she withstands Mordred’s siege, and later takes refuge in a nun convent (at Almesbury in Tennyson‘s more modern retelling).[29] Hearing of the treachery, Arthur returns to Britain and slays Mordred at Camlann, but his wounds are so severe that he is taken to the isle of Avalon by Morgan. During the civil war, Guinevere is portrayed as a scapegoat for violence without developing her perspective or motivation. However, after Arthur’s death, Guinevere retires to a convent in penitence for her infidelity. Her contrition is sincere and permanent; Lancelot is unable to sway her to come away with him. Guinevere meets Lancelot one last time, refusing to kiss him, then returns to the convent where she spends the remainder of her life.[30]

In modern culture

Ellen Terry as Guinevere in the play King Arthur by J. Comyns Carr in the Lyceum Theatre production, designed by Edward Burne-Jones, in an American postcard mailed 12 January 1895

Modern adaptations of Arthurian legend vary greatly in their depiction of Guinevere, largely because certain aspects of her story must be fleshed out by the modern author. In spite of her iconic doomed romance with Lancelot, a number of modern reinterpretations portray her as being manipulated into her affair with Lancelot, with Arthur being her rightful true love. Others present her love for Lancelot as stemming from a relationship that existed prior to her arranged marriage to Arthur.

 


“The land of eternal youth. Mortals are only supposed to glimpse it the moment before death.”
— Gaius to Merlin about Avalon

The Mists of Avalon

The Sídhe (pronounced “Shee”) are an immortal race of Avalon, the Island of Youth, and they appear as small blue humanoid winged creatures. Gaius describes them as “masters of enchantments and a cruel race of beings.” The Sidhe had kings who were called Sidhe elders, they were served by Pixies and could live for 1000 years.

When the daughter of Lord GodwynPrincess Elena was born, a Sidhe elder came and cast a spell on her, implanting a faerie in her body. He then had his Pixie servant, Grunhilda, disguise herself as a human and become her nanny. Grunhilda regularly sprinkled her with Pixie dust as she slept so that when the time was right, the Sidhe inside her would completely possess her. The right time would be when she married Arthur Pendragon (The Changeling).

The Sidhe banished Aulfric and Sophia from Avalon giving them human bodies and a mortal existence, as punishment for Aulfric killing another Sidhe. Aulfric wished to allow Sophia access to return to Avalon and convinced her to enchant Arthur Pendragon so that they might sacrifice him to the Sidhe, who required the soul of a mortal prince as payment for immortality for Sophia. Merlin turned up at the last minute and saved Arthur by attacking and killing both Aulfric and Sophia with Sophia’s Sidhe staff (The Gates of Avalon).

 


The Sídhe (pronounced “Shee”) are an immortal race of Avalon, the Island of Youth, and they appear as small blue humanoid winged creatures. Gaius describes them as “masters of enchantments and a cruel race of beings.” The Sidhe had kings who were called Sidhe elders, they were served by Pixies and could live for 1000 years.

15

When the daughter of Lord GodwynPrincess Elena was born, a Sidhe elder came and cast a spell on her, implanting a faerie in her body. He then had his Pixie servant, Grunhilda, disguise herself as a human and become her nanny. Grunhilda regularly sprinkled her with Pixie dust as she slept so that when the time was right, the Sidhe inside her would completely possess her. The right time would be when she married Arthur Pendragon (The Changeling).

The Sidhe banished Aulfric and Sophia from Avalon giving them human bodies and a mortal existence, as punishment for Aulfric killing another Sidhe. Aulfric wished to allow Sophia access to return to Avalon and convinced her to enchant Arthur Pendragon so that they might sacrifice him to the Sidhe, who required the soul of a mortal prince as payment for immortality for Sophia. Merlin turned up at the last minute and saved Arthur by attacking and killing both Aulfric and Sophia with Sophia’s Sidhe staff (The Gates of Avalon).

When Elena was 20, Godwyn and his old friend Uther Pendragon organised an arranged marriage between Arthur and Elena. Merlin soon discovered the truth but when Grunhilda informed the Sidhe elder of this he went to kill Merlin in his sleep. Merlin, however, was able to destroy him using the Sidhe staff that previously belonged to Sophia. Gaius then created a tonic to get the Sidhe out of Elena and Merlin killed Grunhilda, along with the faerie (The Changeling).They were mentioned by Gaius when Merlin asked if their was a way to save Arthur and Gaius replied that it would take magic as old as the dragons to heal and told Merlin The Sidhe could save Arthur (The Diamond of the Day: Part 2).

Myth

Sidhe (pronounced ‘shee’) literally means “people of the (fairy) hills”. It is the Gaelic name for the fairies in both Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland. Usually these fairies are attracted to those who are beautiful as well as wealthy.

The Sidhe are very powerful creatures, capable of casting very strong spells, and are described as “masters of enchantments”. Many of their kind use staffs to help focus their powers when casting spells. This can range from enchantments to bolts of energy; other wielders of magic can also use these staffs for the same purposes.

They practice their own kind of magic, known as Sidhe magic. They also have the ability to implant one of their own kin inside a human, during the human’s infancy. The Sidhe would continue to live inside of the person, till about twenty years later, when it would emerge and possess the person, taking complete control over them.

They can also fly, and are able, with enough speed, to keep their true form hidden to normal eyes, thus appearing only as a glowing sphere. They can also curse members of their own kind to have a mortal existence, and a mortal body, but they do not appear to be able to remove their powers.

Although not truly immortal, the Sidhe are very close because they can live for thousands of years; because of this, they are as ancient as the Dragons. They can apparently only be killed by strong magic. If cursed to a mortal existence, they find the experience of almost dying unnerving.

It was hinted by Gaius that the Sidhe may have powerful healing Magic, as he told Merlin that is would take Magic as old as the Dragons to heal Arthur and believed that The Sidhe could heal Arthur.

Historicity

In Gaelic (Irish and Highland Scottish) mythology and folklore the Sídhe are also known as Aos Sí, and sometimes as the Túatha De Danann. They are similar to the Elves of Norse mythology (and as, to some extent, those portrayed in Tolkien’s works on Middle Earth), and are not at all like the small pixie-like creatures depicted in Merlin. They inhabit the Otherworld (which is similar to the Otherworld of Welsh mythology known as “Annwn” and may well be linked to “Avalon”) and are immortal, but not necessarily evil. However, they do tend only to care about themselves even when dealing with men, and iron and steel are traditionally inimical to them.

 

Lake of Avalon

“The land of eternal youth. Mortals are only supposed to glimpse it the moment before death.”
— Gaius to Merlin about Avalon

The Lake of Avalon was a gateway to the world of Avalon, the home of the immortal Sidhe. It was only accessible to those with powerful magic, possibly beyond the abilities of most human sorcerers. The lake was the only known gateway to the fallen outside of the Pool of Nemhain, and was the final resting place of FreyaLancelotElyan, and Arthur Pendragon.

 

 

When a Sidhe named Aulfric killed another Sidhe under unspecified circumstances, the Sidhe elder punished him by stripping him and his daughter of their immortality and exiling them from Avalon.

Though Aulfric had no hope of changing his fate, the elders were willing to reopen the gateway to Avalon for Sophia if they were offered the soul of a mortal prince. For this reason Aulfric and Sophia journeyed to Camelot and enchanted Prince Arthur. They took him to the Lake of Avalon and attempted to sacrifice him, but their plan was thwarted by Merlin, who seized Sophia’s staff and used it to kill both her and her father before the ritual was complete (The Gates of Avalon).

Image-1

Merlin takes Excalibur to the lake.

When the Great Dragon learned that Uther had wielded the magical sword Excalibur, he ordered Merlin to take it far away from Camelot, to a place where no mortal man would ever find it. Following these instructions, Merlin retrieved the sword from the armoury and cast it into the Lake of Avalon, where it remained for the next three years (Excalibur).

When Merlin’s lover, Freya, was dying, Merlin carried her to the Lake of Avalon, which he knew would remind her of her childhood home. The setting comforted Freya, who was pleased that he’d remembered, and her final moments were spent on its shores. Though he hadn’t been able to heal her, Freya assured Merlin that he’d already saved her, that he’d made her feel loved, and with her last last breath promised him that one day she would repay his kindness. She died seconds later in Merlin’s arms.

Merlin209 1923-0

Merlin mourns Freya at the lake.

Heartbroken, Merlin placed her body in a boat lined with ferns and used his magic to set it adrift on the lake. When the boat was some distance away, he used his magic to set it aflame, thereby giving Freya a Viking funeral. He watched the boat burn for a moment, and then returned to Camelot (The Lady of the Lake).

Twenty years after the Sidhe elder implanted a Sidhe into the infant Princess Elena, transforming her into a changeling, Elena traveled to Camelot with her father, Lord Godwyn, to arrange a marriage between her and Prince Arthur. Though it was soon apparent that neither Arthur nor Elena had any interest in one another, Uther and Godwyn remained determined to unite their kingdoms through the match, prompting Elena’s nursemaid, Grunhilda, (a pixie in disguise), to meet with the Sidhe elder at the Lake of Avalon.

 

Grunhilda informed the elder that the marriage between Arthur and Elena would proceed as planned, revealing that the Sidhe had anticipated the match and turned Elena into a changeling in preparation for it. Once Elena was married to Arthur, the fairy inside her would emerge and take her over completely, thereby allowing a Sidhe to become Queen of Camelot. Fortunately, their plan was thwarted by Merlin and Gaius, and Arthur and Elena ultimately chose to call the wedding off when they admitted that neither of them had feelings for the other (The Changeling).

Image-1-0

The Avalon Vial.

When Merlin accompanied Arthur on his quest to recover the Fisher King’s trident, the Fisher King gave him a glass vial containing water from the Lake of Avalon. He warned him that Albion’s time of need was near and that Merlin alone could save her, but that he would need help, and the water would provide that help (The Eye of the Phoenix).

When Morgause and Morgana conquered Camelot with their immortal army, Merlin took the vial with him when he, Arthur, and their allies went into hiding. He experimented with the water using his magic and various spells, but whatever help it could provide remained a mystery until he accidentally broke it. The water took on an ethereal glow and formed a small puddle in a crevice of rock, through which he was able to contact his deceased lover Freya.

Merlin313 0987-0

Freya returns Excalibur to Merlin.

Freya explained that the Cup of Life had not only made Morgana’s army immortal but transformed them into the living dead, and there was only one thing that could slay that which was already dead: the sword Excalibur, which Merlin had hidden at the bottom of the Lake of Avalon. The next day, Merlin asked the Great Dragon to take him to the lake, where Freya retrieved the sword from its resting place and returned it to him, thus providing him with the help he and Arthur needed to retake Camelot (The Coming of Arthur).

After Morgana directed the Shade Lancelot to commit suicide, Arthur ordered that the former knight be given a proper burial. Merlin took Lancelot’s body to the Lake of Avalon, where he placed it in a boat lined with twigs and flowers. He then used his magic to free Lancelot’s soul from Morgana’s control. The spell he used restored Lancelot to his true self and unexpectedly revived him for a brief moment, which the former knight used to thank Merlin before he quietly passed on. Merlin then set the boat adrift and used his magic to set it aflame (Lancelot du Lac).

Sir Elyan was given a similar funeral roughly three years later, after he died rescuing his sister Guinevere from the Dark Tower. With the entire court of Camelot in attendance, the boat containing Elyan’s body was set adrift on the lake. A knight then fired a flaming arrow into the boat, setting it alight (The Dark Tower).

Arthur is dead

Merlin sends Arthur to Avalon.

When Arthur was fatally wounded in the Battle of Camlann, Merlin took him the Lake of Avalon to be healed by the Sidhe. They were confronted along the way by Morgana, and though Merlin killed her before she could do Arthur any more harm, the delay she caused in their journey was a costly one, and Arthur ultimately died before they could reach their destination. Heartbroken, Merlin cast Excalibur back into the lake, where Freya caught it in her hand and drew it back under the water. He then placed Arthur’s body in a boat and set it adrift on the lake (The Diamond of the Day).

Name

  • Avalon is derived from the Latin Insula Avallonis (cognate with the Welsh Ynys Afallon) which literally means “the isle of fruit [or apple] trees”

 


“The land of eternal youth. Mortals are only supposed to glimpse it the moment before death.”
— Gaius to Merlin about Avalon

The Lake of Avalon was a gateway to the world of Avalon, the home of the immortal Sidhe. It was only accessible to those with powerful magic, possibly beyond the abilities of most human sorcerers. The lake was the only known gateway to the fallen outside of the Pool of Nemhain, and was the final resting place of FreyaLancelotElyan, and Arthur Pendragon.

HistoryEdit

07-the-gates-of-avalon

Aulfric summons the Sidhe elder.

When a Sidhe named Aulfric killed another Sidhe under unspecified circumstances, the Sidhe elder punished him by stripping him and his daughter of their immortality and exiling them from Avalon.

Though Aulfric had no hope of changing his fate, the elders were willing to reopen the gateway to Avalon for Sophia if they were offered the soul of a mortal prince. For this reason Aulfric and Sophia journeyed to Camelot and enchanted Prince Arthur. They took him to the Lake of Avalon and attempted to sacrifice him, but their plan was thwarted by Merlin, who seized Sophia’s staff and used it to kill both her and her father before the ritual was complete (The Gates of Avalon).

Image-1

Merlin takes Excalibur to the lake.

When the Great Dragon learned that Uther had wielded the magical sword Excalibur, he ordered Merlin to take it far away from Camelot, to a place where no mortal man would ever find it. Following these instructions, Merlin retrieved the sword from the armoury and cast it into the Lake of Avalon, where it remained for the next three years (Excalibur).

When Merlin’s lover, Freya, was dying, Merlin carried her to the Lake of Avalon, which he knew would remind her of her childhood home. The setting comforted Freya, who was pleased that he’d remembered, and her final moments were spent on its shores. Though he hadn’t been able to heal her, Freya assured Merlin that he’d already saved her, that he’d made her feel loved, and with her last last breath promised him that one day she would repay his kindness. She died seconds later in Merlin’s arms.

Merlin209 1923-0

Merlin mourns Freya at the lake.

Heartbroken, Merlin placed her body in a boat lined with ferns and used his magic to set it adrift on the lake. When the boat was some distance away, he used his magic to set it aflame, thereby giving Freya a Viking funeral. He watched the boat burn for a moment, and then returned to Camelot (The Lady of the Lake).

Twenty years after the Sidhe elder implanted a Sidhe into the infant Princess Elena, transforming her into a changeling, Elena traveled to Camelot with her father, Lord Godwyn, to arrange a marriage between her and Prince Arthur. Though it was soon apparent that neither Arthur nor Elena had any interest in one another, Uther and Godwyn remained determined to unite their kingdoms through the match, prompting Elena’s nursemaid, Grunhilda, (a pixie in disguise), to meet with the Sidhe elder at the Lake of Avalon.

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Grunhilda informed the elder that the marriage between Arthur and Elena would proceed as planned, revealing that the Sidhe had anticipated the match and turned Elena into a changeling in preparation for it. Once Elena was married to Arthur, the fairy inside her would emerge and take her over completely, thereby allowing a Sidhe to become Queen of Camelot. Fortunately, their plan was thwarted by Merlin and Gaius, and Arthur and Elena ultimately chose to call the wedding off when they admitted that neither of them had feelings for the other (The Changeling).

Image-1-0

The Avalon Vial.

When Merlin accompanied Arthur on his quest to recover the Fisher King’s trident, the Fisher King gave him a glass vial containing water from the Lake of Avalon. He warned him that Albion’s time of need was near and that Merlin alone could save her, but that he would need help, and the water would provide that help (The Eye of the Phoenix).

When Morgause and Morgana conquered Camelot with their immortal army, Merlin took the vial with him when he, Arthur, and their allies went into hiding. He experimented with the water using his magic and various spells, but whatever help it could provide remained a mystery until he accidentally broke it. The water took on an ethereal glow and formed a small puddle in a crevice of rock, through which he was able to contact his deceased lover Freya.

Merlin313 0987-0

Freya returns Excalibur to Merlin.

Freya explained that the Cup of Life had not only made Morgana’s army immortal but transformed them into the living dead, and there was only one thing that could slay that which was already dead: the sword Excalibur, which Merlin had hidden at the bottom of the Lake of Avalon. The next day, Merlin asked the Great Dragon to take him to the lake, where Freya retrieved the sword from its resting place and returned it to him, thus providing him with the help he and Arthur needed to retake Camelot (The Coming of Arthur).

After Morgana directed the Shade Lancelot to commit suicide, Arthur ordered that the former knight be given a proper burial. Merlin took Lancelot’s body to the Lake of Avalon, where he placed it in a boat lined with twigs and flowers. He then used his magic to free Lancelot’s soul from Morgana’s control. The spell he used restored Lancelot to his true self and unexpectedly revived him for a brief moment, which the former knight used to thank Merlin before he quietly passed on. Merlin then set the boat adrift and used his magic to set it aflame (Lancelot du Lac).

Sir Elyan was given a similar funeral roughly three years later, after he died rescuing his sister Guinevere from the Dark Tower. With the entire court of Camelot in attendance, the boat containing Elyan’s body was set adrift on the lake. A knight then fired a flaming arrow into the boat, setting it alight (The Dark Tower).

Arthur is dead

Merlin sends Arthur to Avalon.

When Arthur was fatally wounded in the Battle of Camlann, Merlin took him the Lake of Avalon to be healed by the Sidhe. They were confronted along the way by Morgana, and though Merlin killed her before she could do Arthur any more harm, the delay she caused in their journey was a costly one, and Arthur ultimately died before they could reach their destination. Heartbroken, Merlin cast Excalibur back into the lake, where Freya caught it in her hand and drew it back under the water. He then placed Arthur’s body in a boat and set it adrift on the lake (The Diamond of the Day).

Name

  • Avalon is derived from the Latin Insula Avallonis (cognate with the Welsh Ynys Afallon) which literally means “the isle of fruit [or apple] trees”.

Appearances 

Series 1
The Gates of Avalon
Excalibur
Series 2
The Lady of the Lake
Series 3
The Changeling
The Eye of the Phoenix (Mentioned only)
The Coming of Arthur, Part 2
Series 4
Lancelot du Lac
Series 5
The Dark Tower
The Diamond of the Day, Part 2

In The Legend

Burne-Jones Last Sleep of Arthur in Avalon v2

Avalon (also known as the Isle of the Blessed) was an island in Arthurian Legend. First appearing in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s 1136 pseudo-historical account Historia Regum Britanniae, it was the place where Arthur’s sword Excalibur was forged and where Arthur was taken to recover from his wounds after the Battle of Camlann.

Even in its earliest appearances, Avalon was strongly associated with mystical practices and figures. Morgan le Fay, for example, was portrayed in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s 1150 work Vita Merlini as the chief of nine magical sisters who dwelt on the island, all of them skilled in healing.

Historicity

Avalon is traditionally identified as the former island of Glastonbury Tor, which was once called Ynys yr Afalon (“The Isle of Avalon”) by the Britons. In 1191, the monks at Glastonbury Abbey supposedly discovered King Arthur and Queen Guinevere’s neatly labeled coffins in the Tor, though this was later proven to be a hoax.

The Templar Code for Dummies by Christopher L. Hodapp also names Glastonbury Tor as one of the possible locations of the Holy Grail, likely because of its proximity to the monastery that housed the Nanteos Cup.

source: merlin.fandom.com/wiki/Lake_of_Avalon

Lady of the Lake

 

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Lady of the Lake
Matter of Britain character
The Lady of the Lake by Speed Lancelot.jpg

The Lady of the Lake in Lancelot Speed‘s illustration for James Thomas Knowles‘ The Legends of King Arthur and His Knights (1912)
First appearance Estoire de Merlin[1]
In-universe information
Occupation Enchantress
Family Dyonas
Spouse Pelleas
Significant other Merlin
Children Lancelot, Guivret
Home Her lake, sometimes Avalon

The Lady of the Lake (FrenchDame du Lac, Demoiselle du LacWelshArglwyddes y LlynCornishArloedhes an LynnBretonItron an Lenn) is an enchantress in the Matter of Britain, the body of medieval literature and legend associated with King Arthur. She plays a pivotal role in many stories, including giving Arthur his sword Excalibur, enchanting Merlin, and raising Lancelot after the death of his father. At least two different sorceresses bearing the title “the Lady of the Lake” appear as separate characters in some versions and adaptations since the Post-Vulgate Cycle and consequently Le Morte d’Arthur.

Names and origins[edit]

Nimue in Howard Pyle‘s illustration for The Story of King Arthur and His Knights (1903)

Today the Lady of the Lake is best known as Nimuë, or its scribal variants[2] Ninianne or Viviane, medieval authors and copyists produced various other forms including Nimane (Vulgate Merlin, in addition to “Viviane”), Nimanne / Niv[i]en[n]e / Vivienne (Huth Merlin), VivienVivianNimiane/Niniame (Arthour and Merlin, English Merlin), Nymenche (Lancelot Propre), Nin[i]eve (Post-Vulgate Suite du Merlin), Niniane (Livre d’Artus), Niviana (Baladro), and Ui[n/ui]ane (Estoire de Merlin), among other variations, including alternate spellings with the letter i written as y (such as Nymanne or Nynyane).[3][4][5] The most primitive French form might be Niniane.[4] The form Nimue, in which the letter e can be written as ë or è, has been popularized by Thomas Malory‘s Le Morte d’Arthur and itself has several variations: in William Caxton‘s edition, her name appears as NymueNyneue and Nynyue, but it had been rather Nynyve (predominantly[6]) and Nenyve in Malory’s original Winchester Manuscript. Even though “Nymue”, with the m, appears only in the Caxton text, Nimue is perhaps the most form of the name of the character as this was the only version of Le Morte d’Arthur published until 1947.[7]

Witches’ Tree by Edward Burne-Jones (1905)

Arthurian scholar A. O. H. Jarman, following suggestions first made by scholars of the 19th century, proposed that the name “Viviane” used in French Arthurian romances were ultimately derived from (and a corruption of) the Welsh word chwyfleian (also spelled hwimleianchwibleian, et al. in medieval Welsh sources), meaning “a wanderer of pallid countenance”, which was originally applied as an epithet to the famous prophetic “wild man” figure of Myrddin Wyllt (Merlin) in medieval Welsh poetry. Due to the relative obscurity of the word, it was misunderstood as “fair wanton maiden” and taken to be the name of Myrddin’s female captor.[8][9][10] Others have linked the name “Nymenche” with the Irish mythology‘s figure Niamh, or connected the name “Niniane” with the Welsh mythology‘s figure Rhiannon or the 5th-century saint Ninian.[3]

Chrétien de Troyes‘s Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart, the first known story featuring Lancelot as a prominent character, was also the first to mention his upbringing by a fairy in a lake. If to accept that the German Lanzelet by Ulrich von Zatzikhoven contains elements of a more primitive version of this tale than Chrétien’s, the infant Lancelot was spirited away to a lake by a water fairy (merfeine in Old High German) known as the Lady of the Sea and then raised in her Land of Maidens (Meide lant[11]).[12] The fairy queen character and her paradise island in Lanzelet are reminiscent of Morgen (Morgan) of the Island of Avallon in Geoffrey of Monmouth‘s Vita Merlini.[13] Guendoloena and Ganieda, respectively Merlin’s one-time wife and his sister from Geoffrey’s work, as well as the Roman goddess of the hunt and the nature, Diana, can also be considered prototypes.[14]

 

 

In medieval literature[edit]

The Lady finds Lancelot at Tintagel to cure his madness caused by a dream sent to him by Morgan le Fay. Evrard d’Espinques‘ illumination of the Vulgate Lancelot (c. 1475)

The Lady of the Lake began appearing in the French chivalric romances by the early 13th century, becoming Lancelot’s fairy godmother-like foster mother. In the Lancelot-Grail (Vulgate) prose cycle, in which she is known for her connection to the color white, the Lady resides in an enchanted realm disguised as an illusion of a lake (the Post-Vulgate notes it as Merlin’s work[15]). There, she raises the child Lancelot after the death of his father King Ban, as well as his also orphaned cousins Lionel and Bors after having her damsel Seraide (Saraïde, later called Celise) rescue them from King Claudas. She then aids Lancelot in various ways during his early adventures, including with her magic item gifts and through her maidens serving as her agents and messengers, and restoring him to sanity on multiple occasions.

Merlin and VivienneOtway McCannell‘s illustration for Lewis Spence‘s Legends and Romances of Brittany (1917)
“Waving her hands and uttering the charm, [she] presently enclosed him fast within the tree.” Lancelot Speed‘s illustration for James Thomas Knowles‘ The Legends of King Arthur and His Knights (1912)

The Vulgate Cycle provides a backstory for the Lady of the Lake in the Prose Merlin-derived section, which takes place before its main Vulgate Lancelot section but was written later. In the Vulgate Merlin, she refuses to give Merlin her love until he has taught her all his secrets, after which she uses her power to seal him forever, originally either in the trunk of a hawthorn tree or beneath a stone.[16] Though Merlin knows beforehand that this will happen due to his power of foresight, he is unable to counteract her because of the ‘truth’ this ability of foresight holds. He decides to do nothing for his situation other than to continue to teach her his secrets until she takes the opportunity to entrap and entomb him within a tree, underneath a large stone, or inside a cave or a tomb, depending on the version of this story. In one version, in a nonviolent scene taking place under a blooming hawthorn, he is betrayed and placed inside an invisible and indestructible tower, but then she comes to him every day or night in a motif reminiscent that of Ganieda’s visits of Merlin’s house in Vita Merlini.[14]

According to her backstory in the Vulgate Merlin, she was the daughter of Dionas (Dyonas) and the niece of the Duke of Burgundy and it was an enchantment of Dionas’ godmother Diana (Diane/Dyane) that caused her to be so alluring to Merlin.[17] The Vulgate Lancelot informs the reader that, “in the time of Virgil“, Diana was the Queen of Sicily that was considered a goddess by her subjects. The Post-Vulgate version of Merlin describes how Diana killed her partner Faunus to be with a man named Felix, but then she was herself killed by her lover at that lake, later called the Lake of Diana (Lac Diane/Dyane). This is the place at where Lancelot du Lac (“of the Lake”) is raised, at first not knowing his real parentage. In the Post-Vulgate Suite du Merlin, she is a daughter of the king of Brittany who is initially also known as the Damsel Huntress in her introductory episode. The Livre d’Artus has its Lady of the Lake leaving Merlin for another lover; here, she is never actually molested by Merlin and rids herself of him only as a precaution.[18] In the Prophéties de Merlin, she is proud of how Merlin had never taken her virginity, unlike what happened with his other students, and is especially cruel in the way she disposes of him.[19] The Vulgate Lancelot explains that, with a spell, she put “on her groin which, as long as it lasted, prevented anyone from deflowering her and having relations with her.”[20]

The gift of the sword Excalibur in an illustration for George Melville Baker‘s Ballads of Bravery (1877)

Another, unnamed Lady of the Lake appears to bestow the magic sword Excalibur to Arthur. In the Post-Vulgate tradition, she is presented as an early benefactor of King Arthur who grants him Excalibur when his original sword is damaged. She is later beheaded by Sir Balin as a result of a kin feud between them (she blames him for the death of her brother, while he blames her for the death of his mother, who had been burned at the stake, as well as for how, he says, “by enchantment and sorcery she has been the destroyer of many good knights”) and a dispute over an enchanted sword. Modern retellings often omit that episode.

According to Anne BerthelotMorgan le Fay herself is “the Lady of the Lake”, as compared to the “upstart magician” Viviane, in the French prose cycles.[14] The 13th/14th-century English poem Arthour and Merlin casts Morgan herself in the role of the Lady of the Lake and residing near a town named Ninniane. The 15th-century Italian manuscript La Tavola Ritonda (The Round Table) makes the Lady a daughter of Uther Pendragon and a sister to both Morgan and Arthur; here she is a character villainous to the extent that her own brother Arthur swears to burn her.[21] In the 14th-century French prose romance Perceforest, a lengthy prequel to the Post-Vulgate, the figures of the Lady of the Lake and of the enchantress Sebile have been merged to create the character of Sebile of the Castle of the Lake, an ancestor of Arthur. The Lady of the Lake who raised Lancelot also appears in Perceforest, which derives her ancestry line from the descendants of ancient fairy named Morgane, whose own source of power was the deity Zephir.

In Le Morte d’Arthur[edit]

In Thomas Malory’s 15th-century compilation, the first Lady of the Lake remains unnamed besides this epithet. When Arthur and Merlin first meet this Lady of the Lake, she holds Excalibur out of the water and offers it to Arthur if he promises to fulfill a request from her later. He agrees and receives his famous sword. Later, the Lady of the Lake comes to Arthur’s court to receive her end of the bargain; she asks for the head of Sir Balin, whom she blames for her brother’s death. Arthur refuses this request, and Balin swiftly decapitates her instead with his own magic sword in front of Arthur and sends off his squire with her head, much to distress and shame of the king. Arthur gives the Lady a rich burial, has her slayer banished, and allows Sir Launcenor of Ireland to go after him to avenge this disgrace.[22][23]

George Housman Thomas‘ illustration for The Story of King Arthur and His Knights of the Round Table by James Thomas Knowles (1862)

The second Lady of the Lake is sometimes referred to by her title and sometimes referred to by name. Nimue, whom Malory describes as the “chief Lady of the Lake”, plays a pivotal role in the Arthurian court throughout his story.[24] The first time the character named Nimue appears is at the wedding of Arthur and Guinevere. She then proceeds to perform some of the same actions as the Lady of the Lake of his sources but is different in some ways. For instance, in the Post-Vulgate Suite du Merlin, Malory’s source for the earlier parts of Le Morte d’Arthur, the Lady of the Lake traps Merlin in a tomb, which results in his death. She does this out of cruelty and a hatred of Merlin.[21] In Le Morte d’Arthur, on the other hand, Nimue is still the one to trap Merlin, but Malory gives her a sympathetic reason: Merlin falls in love with her and will not leave her alone; Malory gives no indication that Nimue loves him back. Eventually, since she cannot get rid of him otherwise, she decides to trap him under rock and makes sure he cannot escape. She is tired of his sexual advances, and afraid of his power as “a devil’s son”, so she does not have much of a choice but to ultimately get rid of him.[25]

“‘Look!’, said the Lady Nimue, ‘Ye ought to be sore ashamed to be the death of such a knight!'” William Henry Margetson‘s illustration for Janet MacDonald Clark’s Legends of King Arthur and His Knights (1914)

After enchanting Merlin, Malory’s Nimue replaces him as Arthur’s magician aide and adviser. She becomes the lover and eventual wife of Sir Pelleas and mother to his son Guivret. Nimue appears as the chivalric code changes; her appearance hints to the reader that something new will happen. This trend follows the logic that the author and the reader are in cahoots in order to achieve the wanted interpretation of the Arthurian legend. Each time the Lady reappears in Le Morte d’Arthur, it is at a pivotal moment of the episode, establishing the importance of her character within Arthurian literature, as she transcends any notoriety attached to her character by aiding Arthur and other knights to succeed in their endeavors. In Malory’s text, Nimue is married to Pelleas and outwardly acts as an obedient wife, while at the same time subtly helping sway the court in the right direction. When Malory was looking at other texts to find inspiration, he chose the best aspects of all the other Lady of the Lake characters, making her a pragmatic, compassionate, clever, strong-willed character. When Arthur is in need in Malory’s text, some incarnation of the Lady of the Lake, or her magic, or her agent, reaches out to help him.[26][27] For instance, she saves Arthur from a magical attempt on his life made by his sister Morgan le Fay and from the death at the hands of Morgan’s lover Accolon (a motif from the Post-Vulgate), and together with Tristan frees Arthur from the evil sorceress Annowre (a motif from the Prose Tristan).

After the Battle of Camlann, she reclaims Excalibur when it is thrown into the water by Sir Bedivere. In the end, Malory’s Nimue is named as one of the magical queens who bear the mortally wounded Arthur away to Avalon, a setting tied to the Lady of the Lake characters in some literary traditions.

 

 

Avalon

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Avalon
Arthurian legend location
Burne-Jones Last Sleep of Arthur in Avalon v2.jpg

First appearance Historia Regum Britanniae
Created by Geoffrey of Monmouth
Information
Type Legendary idyllic island
Notable characters King ArthurMorgan le FayLady of the Lake

Avalon (/ˈævəˌlɒn/LatinInsula AvallonisWelshYnys Afallon, Ynys Afallach; literally meaning “the isle of fruit [or apple] trees”), sometimes written Avallon or Avilion, is a legendary island featured in the Arthurian legend. It first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth‘s 1136 Historia Regum Britanniae (“The History of the Kings of Britain”) as the place where King Arthur‘s sword Excalibur was forged and later where Arthur was taken to recover from his wounds after the Battle of Camlann. It’s said that is the place where Arthur was taken to his final rest after fighting Mordred. Avalon was associated from an early date with mystical practices and figures such as Morgan le Fay. It is traditionally identified as the former island of Glastonbury Tor.

Etymology

Geoffrey of Monmouth referred to it in Latin as Insula Avallonis in Historia Regum Britanniae (c. 1136). In the later Vita Merlini (c. 1150) he called it Insula Pomorum the “isle of fruit trees” (from Latin pōmus “fruit tree”). The name is generally considered to be of Welsh origin (though an Old Cornish or Old Breton origin is also possible), derived from Old WelshOld Cornish, or Old Breton aball or avallen(n), “apple tree, fruit tree” (cf. afal in Modern Welsh, derived from Common Celtic *abalnā, literally “fruit-bearing (thing)”).[1][2][3][4][5] It is also possible that the tradition of an “apple” island among the British was related to Irish legends concerning the otherworld island home of Manannán mac Lir and LughEmain Ablach (also the Old Irish poetic name for the Isle of Man),[2] where Ablach means “Having Apple Trees”[6]—derived from Old Irish aball (“apple”)—and is similar to the Middle Welsh name Afallach, which was used to replace the name Avalon in medieval Welsh translations of French and Latin Arthurian tales. All are etymologically related to the Gaulish root *aballo “fruit tree”—(as found in the place name Aballo/Aballone) and are derived from a Common Celtic *abal– “apple”, which is related at the Proto-Indo-European level to English apple, Russian яблоко (jabloko), Latvian ābele, et al.[7][8] Writing in early 12th century, William of Malmesbury claimed the name of Avalon came from a man called Avalloc, who once lived on this island with his daughters.[9]

 

Legend

Geoffrey of Monmouth

According to Geoffrey in the Historia, and much subsequent literature which he inspired, Avalon is the place where King Arthur is taken after fighting Mordred at the Battle of Camlann in hope that he could be saved and recover from his wounds. WelshCornish and Breton tradition claimed that Arthur had never really died, but would return to lead his people against their enemiesHistoria also states that Avalon is where his sword Excalibur was forged.

Geoffrey dealt with Avalon in more detail in the Vita Merlini, in which he describes for the first time in Arthurian legend the enchantress Morgan (Morgen) as the chief of nine sisters (Moronoe, Mazoe, Gliten, Glitonea, Gliton, Tyronoe, Thiten and Thiton)[10] who rule Avalon. Geoffrey’s description of the island indicates a sea voyage was needed to get there. His description of Avalon here, which is heavily indebted to the early medieval Spanish scholar Isidore of Seville (being mostly derived from the section on famous islands in Isidore’s famous work Etymologiae, XIV.6.8 “Fortunatae Insulae“),[11][12][13][14] shows the magical nature of the island:

 

 

Later medieval literature[edit]

La Mort d’Arthur by James Archer (1860)

Many later versions of the Arthurian legend (including the best-known, Le Morte d’Arthur by Thomas Malory) have Morgan (who by this time has become Arthur’s sister in popular narrative) and some other magical queens or enchantresses (sometimes with the Lady of the Lake among them; other may include the Queens of Eastland, the Northgales, the Outer Isles, and the Wasteland) arrive after the battle to take the mortally wounded Arthur from the battlefield of Camlann to Avalon in a black boat. In the Vulgate Cycle, Morgan also tells Arthur of her intention to relocate to the isle of Avalon, the place where “the ladies live who know all the magic in the world” (ou les dames sont qui seiuent tous les enchantemens del monde), shortly before Camlann. In Lope Garcia de Salazar’s Spanish summary of the Post-Vulgate Roman du Graal, Morgan then uses her magic to hide Avalon in mist.[citation needed]

Arthur’s fate is often left untold; in the Stanzaic Morte Arthur, the Archbishop of Canterbury later receives Arthur’s dead body and buries it at Glastonbury.[24] Conversely, Stephen of Rouen‘s chronicle Draco Normannicus contains a fictional letter from King Arthur to Henry II of England, in which Arthur claims that he has been healed of his wounds and made immortal by his “deathless/eternal nymph” sister Morgan on Avalon, using the island’s restorative herbs.[25][26] Morgan also features as an immortal ruler of a fantastic Avalon, sometimes alongside the still alive Arthur, in some subsequent and otherwise non-Arthurian chivalric romances such as Tirant lo Blanch,[27] as well as the tales of Huon of Bordeaux,[28] where Oberon is a son of either Morgan by name or “the Lady of the Secret Isle”,[29] and the legend of Ogier the Dane,[30] where Avalon can be described as a castle.[31] In his La FaulaGuillem de Torroella claims to have visited the Enchanted Island (Illa Encantada) and met Arthur who has been brought back to life by Morgan and they both of them are now forever young, sustained by the Grail.[32] In the chanson de geste La Bataille Loquifer, Morgan and her sister Marsion (Marrion) bring the hero Renoart to Avalon, where Arthur now prepares his return alongside Morgan, GawainYwainPercival and Guinevere.[33][34] Such stories take place centuries after the times of King Arthur.

In Erec and Enide by Chrétien de Troyes, the consort of Morgan is the Lord of the Isle of Avalon, Arthur’s nephew named Guinguemar (also appearing in the same or similar role under similar names in other works). In Layamon‘s Brut, Arthur is taken to Avalon to be healed there through means of magic water by a distinctively Anglo-Saxon redefinition of Geoffrey’s Morgen: an elf queen of Avalon named Argante.[35] The Venician Les Prophéties de Merlin features the character of an enchantress known only as the Lady of Avalon (Dame d’Avalon), Merlin‘s pupil who is not Morgan and is in fact a rival and enemy of her (and of Sebile).[36] In the narrative of Alliterative Morte Arthure, relatively devoid of supernatural elements, it is physicians from Salerno who try, and fail, to save Arthur’s life in Avalon.[37]

Connection to Glastonbury[edit]

Though no longer an island in the 12th century, the high conical bulk of Glastonbury Tor had been surrounded by marsh before the surrounding fenland in the Somerset Levels was drained. In ancient times, Ponter’s Ball Dyke would have guarded the only entrance to the island. The Romans eventually built another road to the island.[38] Glastonbury’s earliest name in Welsh was the Isle of Glass, which suggests that the location was at one point seen as an island. At the end of 12th century, Gerald of Wales wrote:

What is now known as Glastonbury was, in ancient times, called the Isle of Avalon. It is virtually an island, for it is completely surrounded by marshlands. In Welsh it is called Ynys Afallach, which means the Island of Apples and this fruit once grew in great abundance. After the Battle of Camlann, a noblewoman called Morgan, later the ruler and patroness of these parts as well as being a close blood-relation of King Arthur, carried him off to the island, now known as Glastonbury, so that his wounds could be cared for. Years ago the district had also been called Ynys Gutrin in Welsh, that is the Island of Glass, and from these words the invading Saxons later coined the place-name “Glastingebury”.[39]

Around 1190, monks at Glastonbury Abbey claimed to have discovered the bones of Arthur and his wife Guinevere. The discovery of the burial is described by chroniclers, notably Gerald, as being just after King Henry II‘s reign when the new abbot of Glastonbury, Henry de Sully, commissioned a search of the abbey grounds. At a depth of 5 m (16 feet) the monks were said to have discovered a massive treetrunk coffin and a lead cross bearing the inscription:

Lead cross inscribed with Arthur’s epitaph, published in William Camden‘s Britannia (1607)

Hic jacet sepultus inclitus rex Arturius in insula Avalonia.
(“Here lies entombed the renowned king Arthur in the island of Avalon.”)

Accounts of the exact inscription vary, with five different versions existing. The earliest is by Gerald in Liber de Principis instructione c. 1193, who wrote that he viewed the cross in person and traced the lettering. His transcript reads: “Here lies buried the famous Arthurus with Wenneveria his second wife in the isle of Avalon.” Inside the coffin were two bodies, whom Giraldus refers to as Arthur and “his queen”; the bones of the male body were described as being gigantic. The account of the burial by the chronicle of Margam Abbey says three bodies were found, the other being that of MordredRichard Barber argues that Mordred’s name was airbrushed out of the story once his reputation as a traitor was appreciated.[40] The story is today seen as an example of pseudoarchaeology. Historians generally dismiss the authenticity of the find, attributing it to a publicity stunt performed to raise funds to repair the Abbey, which had been mostly burned in 1184.[41][note 2]

In 1278, the remains were reburied with great ceremony, attended by King Edward I and his queen, before the High Altar at Glastonbury Abbey.[44] They were moved again in 1368 when the choir was extended.[45] The site became the focus of pilgrimages until the dissolution of the abbey in 1539. The fact that the search for the body is connected to Henry II and Edward I, both kings who fought major Anglo-Welsh wars, has had scholars suggest that propaganda may have played a part as well.[46] Gerald was a constant supporter of royal authority; in his account of the discovery clearly aims to destroy the idea of the possibility of King Arthur’s messianic return:

Many tales are told and many legends have been invented about King Arthur and his mysterious ending. In their stupidity the British [i.e. Welsh, Cornish and Breton] people maintain that he is still alive. Now that the truth is known, I have taken the trouble to add a few more details in this present chapter. The fairy-tales have been snuffed out, and the true and indubitable facts are made known, so that what really happened must be made crystal clear to all and separated from the myths which have accumulated on the subject.[39]

A view from Glastonbury Tor in 2014

The burial discovery ensured that in later romances, histories based on them and in the popular imagination Glastonbury became increasingly identified with Avalon, an identification that continues strongly today. The later development of the legends of the Holy Grail and Joseph of Arimathea by Robert de Boron interconnected these legends with Glastonbury and with Avalon, an identification which also seems to be made in Perlesvaus. The popularity of Arthurian romances has meant this area of the Somerset Levels has today become popularly described as the Vale of Avalon.[47]

In more recent times, writers such as Dion FortuneJohn MichellNicholas Mann and Geoffrey Ashe have formed theories based on perceived connections between Glastonbury and Celtic legends of the Otherworld in attempts to link the location firmly with Avalon, drawing on the various legends based on Glastonbury Tor as well as drawing on ideas like Earth mysteriesLey lines and even the myth of Atlantis. Arthurian literature also continues to use Glastonbury as an important location as in The Mists of AvalonA Glastonbury Romance, and The Bones of Avalon. Even the fact that Somerset has many apple orchards has been drawn in to support the connection. Glastonbury’s connection to Avalon continues to make it a site of tourism and the area has great religious significance for neo-Pagansneo-Druids and as a New Age community, as well as Christians. Hippy identification of Glastonbury with Avalon seen in the work of Michell and in Gandalf’s Garden also helped inspire the Glastonbury Festival.[48]

Other proposed locations[edit]

In medieval times, suggestions for the location of Avalon ranged far beyond Glastonbury. They included paradisal underworld realms equated with the other side of the Earth at the antipodes, as well as Mongibel (Mount Etna) in Sicily[49] and other, unnamed locations in the Mediterranean.[50] Pompenius Mela‘s ancient Roman description of the island of Île de Sein, off the coast of Finistère in Brittany, was notably one of Geoffrey of Monmouth’s original inspirations for his Avalon.[51]

More recently, just like in the quest for Arthur’s mythical capital Camelot, a large number of locations have been put forward as being the “real Avalon”. They include Greenland or other places in or across the Atlantic,[52] the former Roman fort of Aballava in Cumbria,[53] Bardsey Island off the coast of Wales,[9] the isle of Île Aval on the coast of Pleumeur-Bodou in Brittany,[54] and Lady’s Island in Leinster.[55] Geoffrey Ashe championed an association of Avalon with the town of Avallon in Burgundy, as part of a theory connecting King Arthur to the Romano-British leader Riothamus who was last seen in that area.[56] Robert Graves identified Avalon with the Spanish island of Majorca (Mallorca),[54] while Laurence Gardner suggested the Isle of Arran off the coast of Scotland.[9]

 

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