JULY 4th 2020 ECLIPSE – A GLOBAL MISSION FOR THE USA – Kin 96: Yellow Overtone Warrior

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Patricia Cota-Robles

JULY 2, 2020

On July 4th we will be blessed with a Full Moon Lunar Eclipse that will complete the powerful Triple Eclipse Series we have been experiencing for the past month. This event coincides with the celebration of Independence Day in the United States of America. According to the Company of Heaven, the synchronicity of these two events and the unprecedented events that are happening around the World are paving the way for the fulfillment of a facet of the Divine Plan that has been unfolding in the Realms of Cause since the United States of America lost our way after the founding of this country. No matter where you abide on the face of the Earth, your assistance in bringing this facet of the Divine Plan to God Victorious fruition will benefit ALL Life evolving on this Planet. Please read the following information with an open heart and mind and respond according to your Heart’s Call. Your Light is needed NOW!
In October of 2019, a huge portal of Light that once pulsated in the Heavenly Realms above New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Washington, D.C. was activated and once again opened to full breadth. It is through this portal that our Founding Fathers, in spite of their flaws, were inspired to write the sacred documents that form our Declaration of Independence, our Bill of Rights and our Constitution.
The Divine Intent of these documents was to guide the behavior of American citizens in a way that would fulfill the destiny for this New World. That destiny was for America to model to the rest of the people on this Planet a Higher Order of Being, a New World that would heal the illusion of separation and demonstrate to the masses the Oneness of the Family of Humanity.
The plan was that within this consciousness of Oneness, American citizens would revel in our diversities and collectively make decisions and take actions that reflect only the highest good for ALL concerned, thus allowing EVERYONE to live in prosperity, equality, peace and happiness.
The name AMERICA is an anagram for the I AM RACE. This name was intended to reflect a race of God Conscious people comprised of ALL races, ALL nationalities, ALL cultures, ALL religions, ALL creeds and ALL Lifestyles. A race of people who are functioning within the full embrace of their I AM Presence reflecting Oneness, Divine Love, Reverence for ALL Life, and decisions and actions that perpetually reflect the highest good for ALL concerned.
Needless to say, with the manipulation of our fragmented and fear-based human egos, America has fallen far from the fulfillment of her Divine Destiny. As a result of that failure, the portal of Light through which our Founding Fathers were inspired to write our sacred documents became almost dormant. This severely limited the Divine Guidance that the people who have been responsible for governing this country were able to receive. In most instances, those governing this country and those electing those who govern this country have been oblivious of America’s Divine Destiny.
With the recent activation of Humanity’s Twelve 5th-Dimensional Crystalline Solar Strands of DNA, our 12:12 Catalyst Codes, our Transfiguration Codes, our Divine Body Templates, and the Awakening we are experiencing through the forced time-out and the Planetary Reboot for which we are currently preparing, Humanity’s mass consciousness has been elevated to a brand NEW level. This higher consciousness will allow the patterns for Divine Government to register in the conscious mind and Heart Flame of every Son and Daughter of God in ways we have not previously experienced.
As we receive the influx of Light on July 4th which will conclude the most powerful Triple Eclipse Series the Earth has ever known, the Company of Heaven is asking us to join together in Divine Service to Transmute the cause, core, effect, record and memory of the obsolete and fear-based miscreations that have for centuries corrupted and distorted the patterns of government not only for the United States of America but also for rest of the World.
Our participation in this activity of Light will pave the way for the NEW and Heart-based form of Divine Government that exists on the New Earth. This is a Government OF the I AM Presence, BY the I AM Presence, FOR the I AM Presence of every person. A Government based in Oneness, Divine Love and Reverence for ALL Life. The patterns of perfection for this form of government are being revealed in NEW ways through the newly activated Transfiguration Codes in Humanity’s 5th-Dimensional DNA and our greatly enhanced Heart Flames.
The United States of America has a vital role to play in the manifestation of Divine Government on this Planet. Unfortunately, the events surfacing in the outer-world at this time are reflecting the antithesis of this new Heart-based form of government. That is occurring because the Light of God is increasing on Earth due to the Awakening taking place within every person. This is pushing everything that conflicts with God’s Light and Divine Government to the surface to be healed and transmuted back into its original perfection. Consequently, every day we are witnessing how very broken and corrupt not only our political system is in the USA, but how broken and corrupt the governmental systems are around the World as well.
As we join in consciousness with the Company of Heaven to empower Divine Government, know that the I AM Presence of Lightworkers all over the World are joining with us as well. Together, we are cocreating a Chalice of Light through our unified Heart Flames that will serve as an Open Door through which the patterns of perfection for Divine Government will be secured in the physical world of form. And we begin.
The Goddess’ of Liberty, Justice, Freedom, Victory and Glory
Now, in the Name of the Almighty Presence of God, I AM, and through the Creative Fire pulsating in every person’s Heart Flame, we invoke the Goddess of Liberty, the Goddess of Justice, the Goddess of Freedom, the Goddess of Victory and the Goddess of Glory to take their strategic positions around Washington, D.C. and the surrounding areas. We also invoke the Silent Watcher for Washington, D. C. and all of the Mighty Guardians and Cosmic Beings who dwell in the Etheric Complex over Washington, D.C. and the surrounding areas.
Blessed Ones, come forth now and assist us with the most powerful cleansing activity Humanity and the Earth are capable of receiving during this Cosmic Moment. As one unified Heart, we now invoke the 5th-Dimensional frequencies of the Violet Transmuting Flame of God’s Infinite Forgiveness.
Blaze, blaze, blaze this Sacred Violet Fire in, through and around all inharmonious actions, all lower human consciousness and all obstructions of the Light, that we or any part of Life have ever placed on the pathway of Life’s perfection. Through the Divine Power of Infinite Forgiveness, Transmute this discordant energy cause, core, effect, record and memory—now and forever.
Now Beloved Ones, BLAZE and SUSTAIN the multidimensional aspects of the Violet Flame of God’s Infinite Perfection, with the power and might of a thousand Suns, in, through and around the President of the United States of America and his Cabinet—now and forever.

Blaze this Violet Flame in, through, and around the Senate and the House of Representatives for the United States of America, and in, through and around all of the people associated with Governments in the United States at National, State and Local levels—now and forever.

Expand this Sacred Fire through the Supreme Court and all Courts of Law, all Legal procedures and all who are associated with Law Enforcement at every level—now and forever.

Blaze this Violet Flame in, through, and around the United Nations and ALL of its members and all of the people associated with their various countries—now and forever.

Now, expand the Violet Flame with the power and might of a thousand Suns through ALL World leaders and every person associated with any Government on Earth at every level—now and forever.

We accept that this Transmutation and Purification by the unfathomable frequencies of the 5th-Dimensional Violet Flame have been God Victoriously accomplished and will be permanently sustained through the Power of God, I AM.

Now We Call For Divine Government

I AM my I AM Presence, and I AM One with the I AM Presence of all Humanity. As One Breath, One Voice, One Heartbeat, and One Energy, Vibration and Consciousness of Pure Divine Love…

I invoke the great Beings of Light associated with Divine Government to this Planet, and I invoke the Beloved Ascended Masters guarding the evolutions of Earth.

Blessed Ones, blaze the Sacred Fires of God’s Perfect Will, Divine Love and Divine Enlightenment in, through and around every person involved with the Governments of Earth at National, State and Local levels.

Blaze the Sacred Fires of God’s Will, Divine Love and Divine Enlightenment in, through and around the Electorate and Governmental Officials of all Nations.

Let them feel and tangibly experience the Power, Wisdom and Love Nature of our Father-Mother God flowing through their Heart Flames as they elect their Governments and vote on all issues before them.

SEAL this activity of Light in the Threefold Flame anchored within the Heart of every person on Earth, and expand this Light daily and hourly with every Breath I take.


The Golden Flame of Enlightenment

Now, through the Supreme Eternal Mercy and Compassion of our Father-Mother God, the Cosmic I AM—All That Is, I accept the Divine Fiat that is allowing NEW frequencies of the Yellow-Gold Flame of Enlightenment from the very Heart of God to Awaken, Enlighten, Empower, Guide and Protect ALL of Humanity in ways that have never before been attempted. This is creating the sacred space for the tangible manifestation of Divine Government in the USA and all Governments around the World.

Through this Awakening and Divine Enlightenment, God’s Will for Planet Earth SHALL MANIFEST. The Oneness of ALL Life and every country’s Divine Plan will be fulfilled in perfect Divine Order. Divine Government will BE the Order of the New Day on Planet Earth.

We COMMAND and consciously decree that this profound TRUTH is now all-powerfully active, ever-expanding, world-encompassing and eternally sustained right here and right NOW. And so it is, Beloved I AM That I AM.

God Bless You,
Patricia Cota-RoblesEra of Peace
PO Box 17446, Tucson, Arizona 85731-7446
Phone: 520-885-7909, Fax: 520-347-5440
This article is copyrighted, but you have my permission to share it through any medium as long as it is offered for FREE, it is not altered, and the proper credit line is included.
Era of Peace
a 501 (c) 3 nonprofit educational organization
©2020 Patricia Cota-Robles

The Sorceress Has Been Defeated, Faith is at An All-Time High, Things are Manifesting Exactly as it has Been Foretold

The day is now 36 hours and starts and ends at 3AM or 3PM in an alternating fashion.

At the time of this post 8:08 evening gate, on the 3D date 7220, the following 3:AM will start this new day. Simply follow this parallel around the globe until it hits your local time at three.

If you are cognizant that a new day has begun, it is customary to send love and kindness to someone.

Today’s date on the Archangelic Calendar is:



– Gaia has decided to go back into the spirit setting again making this one of the most auspicious days in recent memory. There is clearly a big shift happening and we will be watching it unfold before our eyes in realtime over the next few days. Gaia seems to be the only variable in our world as we have been able to accurately calculate everything else in existence but this very temperamental planets mood swings.

– Organized darkness thinks they are taking orders from their future selves, when in fact they have been greatly deceived by a race of galactic beings. This is why their plans keep failing, their entire hierarchy has fallen and has been replaced by an undisclosed source. It is unclear the exact logistics of those that have deceived them, but never the less it was their ultimate downfall.

– The stargates of the earth are finally turning to light (took some time) and you can expect the light anomaly like the one in NYC, to pop up across the globe. As these stargates and ultimately timelines, shift into our favor.

– Faith must be strong before miracles can take place. Since we are about to see a conclusion to human suffering, it is safe to say that faith in divinity is at an all-time high.

– The legions told us to watch the skies and we are seeing fluffier clouds, light anomalies, tons of starships, and that is only a small percentage as to what we are about to see. Just in case it wasn’t weird enough for you yet, a time rift will be opened in the sky. This is not to be confused with the false images “OD” is projecting which is amateurish at best and is about to cease altogether. As mentioned the US holiday will bring a large display of both of these incidents, as most eyes will be on the sky already.

– Humanity is always looking for a means to an end. That is because our 3D modern lives did not resonate with our souls. On many levels, we see that we were tirelessly wishing for true freedom, and our souls were screaming for this louder than anyone. The freedom craved, is the freedom to live as nature intended, which includes the direct will of “Infinitely Expanding Creator Source”, was the missing ingredients to our sentient goals.

– Many moons ago we promised to keep an eye on the pole shift and inform you of any sudden movements. This is happening as we speak as the poles are moving very fast. Thoth tells us that physical changes do happen when the caps flip and that there is certainly turbulence, but life is not wiped out because of this change. Earth simply adapts and complies with the universal laws of the new engineering settings, this is one of the many reasons for the increased seismic activity.

– During procreation, a portal is created for a soul to enter. This is a basic polarity portal and it comes when intention simultaneously ignites contradictory energies. This is based in the metaphysics of nature and it can be seen everywhere from the sacred geometry of a honeycomb to the beautiful clouds in the sky. If we can dissect these motions, we would notice that it works more like magic, than quantifiable science, even though it is most certainly quantifiable if one cared to try.

– The Sorceress of Organized Darkness has been taken down, and it is because of the legions metaphysical efforts that allowed the authorities the ability to arrest her. Taking out her demonic or galactic interference, provided the doorway for the authorities to take down their leader. This is a very public situation that everyone will be very well aware of, but more importantly, this means that there is no metaphysical backing for organized darkness whatsoever, and they are completely disabled metaphysically speaking.

This event exactly coincides with the exact dates of my third coma, where I was in the middle of this conflict, which is the main reason why we were able to pinpoint this date because it came from future experience. To be noted, she has already started singing like a canary, as she is not known for her fortitude. There are so many malevolent galactic races who are requesting her soul that she would much rather be in the custody of humanity, there is no limit as to what she will do to keep it that way.

We also do not find it even remotely coincidence that Archangel Drah is back on the exact same day this happened. What an entrance from a very powerful and widely unknown powerhouse.

– Mental triggers will bring back memories from past and future lives. Do not let them pass by without connecting with them in a deep and meaningful way.

– I hardly ever communicate to you in this manner, but I must say that the sky is filled with archangels, dragons, mythical beings, galactic friends, deities, and much more. I have known these beings for many lifetimes and I would know them anywhere. They are physically here in ways that we can’t even comprehend yet. The higher dimensions are no longer higher, they are our current reality, we are firmly centered in  5D reality.


Today’s Tools:

Tools will be active until the next post.

Use the legend below to help you decipher how to best use today’s weapons.
(Passive) = No intention needed to use or arm. It will work on its own when you accept its presence. All you need to do is give permission and it will work on your behalf. (Active) = Intention Needed to use (Aggressive) = Will attack before anything has a chance to do any harm to you, beyond space and time.

We have gone through great changes and thus the weapon-based tools indicated below can be inserted into the ground to call forth downloads.

(Active, Passive and Aggressive)
The Violet Flame team is in “The 9 setting”, this means that it is primed and ready for transmutation purposes.

The Violet flame team is as follows, and is in no particular order: Archangel Germaine, Archangel Ansiel, Archangel Briathos, Archangel Emanuel, Archangel Raguel, Archangel Zadekiel, Archangel Dabriel, Archangel AF, Archangel Gzrel, Archangel Tatrasiel, Archangel Agla, Archangel Harahiel, Archangel Aeshma, Archangel Sablo, Archangel Abraxos, Archangel Harahel, Archangel Nuriel, Archangel Galizur, Archangel Orion, Archangel Bathkol, Archangel Adonachiel, Archangel Abasdarhon, Archangel Varhmiel, Archangel Adonai, Archangel Daiquiel, Archangel Baradiel, and Archangel Aeshma.

Archangel Michael’s legendary sword can handle anything, as it is completely omnipotent, no level of consciousness can be achieved that this couldn’t slice through. It is also an amazing weapon against electronics and technology as it can override any circuitry.

(Passive, Active and Aggressive)
Archangel Issac’s Radiant field looks a lot like Magnetos forcefield and it reacts to any life form with either loving energy, or a with a transmutation-al blast of vast power.

(Passive and Aggressive)
Archangel Leo’s Swords of plenty is a passive and aggressive attack sword that has a complete will of its own. Do not try to yield at all, you will only get in the way, equip and go.

Archangel Sorush’s sword of transmutation is only for really bad energies. This is far too powerful to yield lightly, it is made for the worst of the worst. This sword will come in handy in assignment number three.

(Active and Passive)
Archangel Dubbiel’s staff of bear medicine can heal all natural things. This staff is also a powerful ally against all things that may obstruct you.

(Active &Passive)
Chayyliel’s Horn summons an army of unimaginable power to your location. This is a hypersensitive tool and it will adapt to current events in your life and on a global scale as well.

Archangel Ariel’s wand of comforts, helps you summon any necessity you may have. It is a wonderful and comforting tool when equipped.

Archangel Camael’s headdress gives you an insight into your inner talents and abilities. Set the intention and use it right before meditation, you will not regret it.

Archangel Raziel’s Universal Key allows you access to all wisdom, knowledge, and kingdoms. This is a wonderful and wild ride that can take you anywhere. I suggest Archangel Raphael’s Study and Archangel Michael’s Crystal Pyramid.

PLEASE NOTE the next 3 tools are healing modalities and can be sent remotely to loved ones.

(Passive and Aggressive)
Archangel Kaleziel’s radiant rays of health, wards off all diseases and illness. It can also aid in the recovery of diseases already inflicted, it can be sent to land masses as well as individual living beings.

(Passive and Aggressive)
Archangel Theliel’s radiant compassion sends heartfelt love to all within your jurisdictions. This is the nurturing aspect of healing and is and it has incredible warmth. It is best to yield this with a calm frame of mind.

Archangel Raphael’s healing staff is an omnipotent healing force that works gradually or intensively depending on how you yield it. It is considered the best general healing instrument.


Today’s Assignments:

We are still working on a macro level, and thus the format will stay consistent, please use today’s current tools if you need assistance performing the tasks below.

One of the most important nations in regard to earth liberation is Turkey. For one, it has a very large portal that most sentient star beings like to travel through, but the main reason we bring your attention here is that they will be leading the disclosure agenda. It is no coincidence that “The Turkish Media” broke the pedophile story in a public way right before the Sorceress was taken out. We must do everything in our power to protect Turkey from the many threats they face from the East. Just like Australia, we must clear the electronics of the country from demonic energies …

Insight a diamond and silver lightning pulse for a 72 count throughout all powerlines, data connections, and electronics of Turkey and then continue this trend around the world for at least a 72 count.

A group of malevolent star beings decided to test a weapon on the Elephants of Africa, who is part of our Animal Legion. While the legions have gained amazing nonphysical help, their lives were taken unjustly and thus we must have the compassion to stop those who harmed them from destroying their own souls any further. When you attack our legions we have full right to annihilate you, it’s like sending us a written invitation. Obviously, the best course of action is sword and shield, but do everything in your power not to “Never Was” these beings, as it is best to simply send them back via portal to “Infinitely Expanding Creator Source” without prejudice.

The leaders of this malevolent deed are “Ancient Draconians” much like “Old Dinosaur Bones“, who have glass jaws when it comes to our metaphysical attacks, as do their red and black aura ships. They and their ships are solely responsible for the slaughter of the Elephants because they were trying to see how their long-range zapper would work on mammals. They all must be completely removed before they use this on anyone else, rid the skies of these beings, leave no ships intact.

There is a “Malevolent Weather Manipulation Center”, “Alpha Wave Disruptor”, and other Malevolent Weaponry located in a private facility in Haifa, Israel. Destroy its main dome with black lightning strikes, then give it your all with sword and shield. There is also a golden dome at a location nearby that is a major source of siphoning, please be sure to treat it the same way.

We are anticipating a much more enjoyable workload in the upcoming season (Archangel Jophiel, Goddess Aphrodite, Water Season) which starts tomorrow, this will bring much more human heart to heart, building, and ambassadorship missions. That being said, let’s bring the most profound healing to this day so that when we start building our new tomorrow, we do not do so on shaky ground … Send emerald green plasma to every part of the earth, followed by pink plasma and rainbow light. Please hold these motions for at least a 72 count each.


source: archangeliccalendar.com


If you order any product on Amazon through the following links the proceeds will go towards our Ecuador healing retreat center.

Brian Kurt Alford to Taoism; Lao Tzu and Wu Wei Group

Teaching without words, performing without actions—
few in the world can grasp it—
that is the master’s way,
rare indeed are those who obtain the bounty of this world.
lao Tzu


The Tzolkin Times

13 hrs

Kin 96 ~ Yellow Overtone Warrior

‘Overtone’ is the name for the number 5 and it’s key words are ‘Empower, Radiance and Command.’ The fifth day of a wavespell is always powerful and it’s effect on the day is formidable! Whatever day it combines with the number five adds significant intensity and strength. Much can be accomplished on ‘Overtone’ days.

Today is Yellow Warrior and its key words are ‘Intelligence, Questioning and Fearlessness.’ It’s a crazy intense combination today as 5 warrior is one of the most powerful Warriors in the Tzolkin. This is perfect if you have a quest to go on or a mission to undertake. Warrior invites you to be fearless and the number 5 gives you power. I highly recommend taking on a quest as with all this energy around, choosing not to do anything will result in restlessness and frustration and there is a likelihood of this energy turning into arguments. Don’t go on the warpath but instead harness this energy and do something useful with it.

Today’s Guide is the Yellow Seed which represents ‘sowing awareness’. To be led by this desire for wisdom can only mean that any mission taking today should be about discovering important information. We are in the Yellow Human wavespell which is about fine tuning our intuition. On this fifth day we can be empowered by this process and wisdom can be gained. Yesterday too was an information gathering day and so this wavespell is turning out to be quite informative.

The Challenge is the White Worldbridger suggesting that crossing bridges today won’t be easy. If you are a Worldbridger all you can do today is be fearless and you’ll get by unscathed by the battles that are going on.

The Ally today is the Blue Night, the dreamer of the Tzolkin. If you need assistance with your mission today seek out a Blue Night, they can dream up some good ideas for you and that will help you. If you are a Blue Night expect your services to be in demand.

source: www.facebook.com/TheTzolkinTimes



Christina Papageorgiou

Yesterday at 7:21 AM

5 CIB – KIN 96
3 JULY 2020

The most RADIANT🌈 WARRIOR 🌈 of them all!!

Commanding Fearlessness
I seal the output of Intelligence
With the Overtone tone of RADIANCE
I AM guided by the power of Flowering

3/7/2020 = 3/7/22=3/7/4 = 3/11=5

3 – Holy Trinity/Joy/Creativity
7- Mystic/Majik/Spiritual
4- Form/Structure/Foundation/Earth
11 – Portal/Duality/Doorway/Partnership
5 – LIBERATION/FREEDOM/Change/Transformation

KIN 96 = 15/6 code =6 Heaven/Christ Consciousness/Harmony/Love/Romance

An 11 portal MONTH plus it is also a G.A.P. day today so DOUBLE PORTAL is activated!!

🌟GAP DAY 🍥– Galactic Activation Portal!! 🌟

Another INTENSELY POTENT DAY of Divine POWER to fuel our QUEST! 💥💥💥


Day 5 in the YELLOW HUMAN WAVESPELL of wisdom, influence, intelligence, free will and Abundance..TODAY is a day of EMPOWERMENT, where we use our intelligence and FREE WILL to QUESTION everything in our world in order to make better choices, leading to better outcomes for all.

OVERTONE 🔅🔅– Tone 5 in the SPIRITUAL realm. ACTION – commands, POWER – empowers, ESSENCE – radiance Number 5 represents the Center, 🔘 core purpose, foundation and central intent. It is the CENTER of the wheel from which all the spokes emanate. This is the phase where the energy of Creation returns to the center and then RADIATES outwards. Overtones command the unbounded. They order it to BE and so it becomes! Their power radiates from their soul essence through a pure connection to SOURCE, this is the true source of unlimited power.


CONSCIOUS SELF: YELLOW WARRIOR🌈🏹– CIB- is the fearless warrior who leads us on a courageous QUEST-I -ON. We become fearless advocates for justice, liberty and a higher truth. We ask continuous and bold, highly intelligent questions, then COMMAND answers and solutions. We are on a Divine Mission and are unstoppable. No false “authority” can stand in our way! The RAINBOW WARRIORS of the New Earth will not stop QUESTIONING, as they fearlessly confront HEAD on all obstructions to attaining Nirvana. If it is not for the betterment of ONE and ALL, then it must crumble and yield to a new way of being. The YELLOW WARRIOR applies focused intention on discovering the best choices and the best road to travel reaching to the desired destination.

The most RADIANT🌈 WARRIOR 🌈 of them all!!

The OVERTONE WARRIORS are the true LEADERS of the New Earth as they LEAD through COMMANDING RADIANCE and thus people are naturally drawn to follow in their lead and cocreate their inspired VISION.

Today the RAINBOW WARRIOR 🌈🏹is COMMANDING back his Divine POWER! 💥


The RAINBOW WARRIORS are being called to ACTION as the NEW LEADERS of this Golden Era we are cocreating. As we close the old cycle and the old paradigm collapses NOW IS THE TIME, for the LIGHTWORKERS/WAYSHOWERS/STARBLOSSOMS to come forth and heed their highest DIVINE CALLING as the NEW SOVEREIGN LEADERS they signed up to be. So get ready to CLAIM IT and STEP UP for DIVINE SERVICE.

“A real LEADER 👑 is someone who uses nothing but WHO they are, to UNITE many, to achieve GOOD” Riccardo Bosi

Riccardo Bosi is AUSTRALIA’S new Divine SOVEREIGN 👑 LEADER who WILL be elected this Saturday 4 July. 2020 as the Federal member for Eden-Monaro.. (please hold this VISION of his success 🏆for the highest good of Australia and our world) 🙏🙏

NOTE: This is also the full moon lunar eclipse in Capricorn (The Ruler/King/Boss) and it is historically known that KING’S either die/are deposed/or claim their throne on an ECLIPSE portal. Woot woot – HISTORY is in the MAKING folks!

Riccardo outlines the 5 Pillars of a TRUE LEADER as follows;

The slab or foundation must be built on TRUST.

Pillar 1 – Character – having the courage to LEAD and make tough decisions.

Pillar 2 – Capability – know your Job and your people – have the skill and will to do the job

Pillar 3 – Invention – be unique and original in your ideas and leadership

Pillar 4 – Empowering others – allow others to SHINE and GROW

Pillar 5 – YOU – be as RADIANT and magnetic as you naturally are – so that others will naturally want to be in your team/tribe.


Aho RAINBOW WARRIORS – the battle is OVER – and now it is time to LEAD your tribe to greatness.


HIGHER SELF/GUIDE: YELLOW SEED 🌾– KAN assists us in seeding, growing and blossoming into our new potential. As KAN encourages us to fully FLOWER today. KAN and CIB hold the most FOCUSED energies of all the Dreamspell kin. Once these kin set their intent on something they are unmovable! Together they are like STEEL! Unbending and unyielding striving to seed the New Culture. Together this POWERFUL duo fearlessly chooses to create a NEW PARADIGM, a new way of BE-ING. KAN holds the seed packet to manifest the greatest and HIGHEST POTENTIAL – the Nirvana that the Rainbow Warriors🌈🌈 are seeking. As the Knights Templar and Arthurian Knights searched far and wide on their QUEST-I-on, in search of the Holy Grail, the Rainbow Warriors 🌈🏹are on their own relentless QUEST, for that inner grail – the Divine union with GOD/GODDESS/SOURCE through their golden chalice which is the highest potential of the Yellow HU-MAN in this 13 day wavespell quest!


SUPPORT: BLUE NIGHT 🌃– AKBAL holds the keys to the Inner Kingdom of GOD! AKBAL reveals any unconscious FEARS that we hold deep in the dark abyss. AKBAL teams with CIB so that we can FEARLESSLY face any resistance to this new way of being.Cutting away and transcending our limitations and restrictive patterns inhibiting our ability to grow, shine and radiate. Through facing and overcoming our FEARS we become EMPOWERED and can then take up our leadership positions, influencing others to follow in our footsteps, or walk beside us in our collective journey to the promised land.

AKBAL is your inner genie, holding the golden KEY🔑 to infinite ABUNDANCE💰💰💰 by clearing the blocks and opening the portal for new energies and possibilities. AKBAL also holds the dreaming code for the collective that the WARRIOR will fearlessly defend until it is made manifest in all its RAINBOW splendour.🌈 That is our unified QUEST as the shining ones – the RADIANT CHRISTED, STAR-SEEDS leading the way to the NEW PARADIGM. 🌈🌏🌐

OCCULT/HIDDEN POWER: RED SOLAR SERPENT 🐍– CHICCHAN gives us the power to FEARLESSLY face our FEARS and release our SURVIVAL wounds in order to grow. We can instinctively know which are the best choices to make in order to be more EMPOWERed. The SOLAR SERPENT enables the Warrior to reclaim his POWER through his Dantien – store of chi in his solar plexus chakra, and by aligning with DIVINE WILL he can PULSE forth the rays through his HEART.

THE SERPENT provides the much needed vitality and life force that the WARRIOR channels into his QUEST of stamina and endurance, to come home VICTORIOUS!

CHALLENGE/GIFT: WHITE WORLDBRIDGER🌉– CIMI’s challenge today is to LET GO and SURRENDER, all that does not “feel right” anymore. In your intelligent questioning, tune in to your instincts and intuition to facilitate this process. Allow CIMI to build the bridge🌈 from the old world to the new, revealing the true path to travel in order to reach the promised land – GOD’S KINGDOM.

Today’s questions are

“What SURVIVAL issues do I need to finally surrender and LET GO, in order to COMMAND back my POWER and seed my new beginning, blossoming 🌸🌺🌼 into my fullest potential?” 💐🌹

 “How can we collectively as a RAINBOW TRIBE become more EMPOWERED and RADIATE our LIGHT, by seeding the better world we want to live in?” 🌈🌏🌐


P.S. To all those FEARLESS RAINBOW WARRIORS 🌈🏹who have been battling with darkness, today is THE DAY to RECLAIM YOUR POWER, connect with SOURCE🔘 and RADIATE🌞 that BRILLIANT LUMINESCENCE🎆, expanding so strongly that all darkness MELTS🌡 and dissolves in your Divine omnipresence!!!!!! 😎🌞😎


I recommend doing a ritual today to officially SURRENDER, let go and release any deep base chakra survival wounding – money, health, shelter, support, FEAR of the dark, FEAR of DEATH, abandonment, sexual manipulation, violence, abuse, power issues etc…. RED SERPENT is the SUPERPOWER today giving you back your full vitality and life force through surrendering to the World-Bridger – DEATH of the old cycle. The WARRIOR fearlessly supports you in COMMANDING back ALL your power from ALL sources, timelines and dimensions, in order to SEED your new life and fully BLOOM 🌹once again – a FRESH START as a fully sovereign Divinely Christed spiritual being.

The OLD GAME IS OVER 💥 – it is TIME to write a new script…take COMMAND of your life TODAY!!

NOTE: As the RED SERPENT🐍 governs FIRE🔥 and kundalini energy – you may chose to use FIRE – fire burning/walking/ light a candle etc or use Yoga – chakra balancing/healing etc…. whatever method you CHOOSE – make sure you COMMAND your intention with super charged focus on your outcome.


Divine blessings for COMMANDING back your FULL DIVINE RADIANT POWER💛💛💛

Namaste’ 🙏🙏🙏
In Lak’ech a la kin
Christina White Magnetic Worldbridger – KIN 66 🌏🌈


DIVINE GRATITUDE: To all the global RAINBOW WARRIORS 🌈🏹 for fearlessly walking their true path, and holding the DREAM of our euphoric planetary unification as ONE RAINBOW TRIBE… 🙏💝🙏💝🙏💝

Christina Papageorgiou


5 CIB – KIN 96
3 JULY 2020

The most RADIANT🌈 WARRIOR 🌈 of them all!!

The OVERTONE WARRIORS are the true LEADERS of the New Earth as they LEAD through COMMANDING RADIANCE and thus people are naturally drawn to follow in their lead and cocreate their inspired VISION.

Today the RAINBOW WARRIORS 🌈🏹 are COMMANDING back their Divine POWER! 💥



The RAINBOW WARRIORS are being called to ACTION as the NEW LEADERS of this Golden Era we are cocreating. As we close the old cycle and the old paradigm collapses NOW IS THE TIME, for the LIGHTWORKERS/ WAYSHOWERS/ STARBLOSSOMS to come forth and heed their highest DIVINE CALLING as the NEW SOVEREIGN LEADERS they signed up to be. So get ready to CLAIM IT and STEP UP for DIVINE SERVICE.

“A real LEADER 👑 is someone who uses nothing but WHO they are, to UNITE many, to achieve GOOD” Riccardo Bosi

Riccardo Bosi is AUSTRALIA’S new Divine SOVEREIGN 👑 LEADER who WILL be elected this Saturday 4 July. 2020 as the Federal member for Eden-Monaro.. (please hold this VISION of his success 🏆for the highest good of Australia and our world) 🙏🙏

NOTE: This is also the full moon lunar eclipse in Capricorn (The Ruler/King/Boss) and it is historically known that KING’S either die/are deposed/or claim their throne on an ECLIPSE portal. Woot woot – HISTORY is in the MAKING folks!

Riccardo outlines the 5 Pillars of a TRUE LEADER as follows;

The slab or foundation must be built on TRUST.

Pillar 1 – Character – having the courage to LEAD and make tough decisions.

Pillar 2 – Capability – know your Job and your people – have the skill and will to do the job

Pillar 3 – Invention – be unique and original in your ideas and leadership

Pillar 4 – Empowering others – allow others to SHINE and GROW

Pillar 5 – YOU – be as RADIANT and magnetic as you naturally are – so that others will naturally want to be in your team/tribe.


Aho RAINBOW WARRIORS – the battle is OVER – and now it is time to LEAD your tribe to greatness.


Namaste’ 🙏🙏🙏
In Lak’ech a la kin
Christina White Magnetic Worldbridger – KIN 66 🌏🌈


DIVINE GRATITUDE: To all the global RAINBOW WARRIORS 🌈🏹 for fearlessly walking their true path, and holding the DREAM of our euphoric planetary unification as ONE RAINBOW TRIBE… 🙏💝🙏💝🙏💝

If you order any product on Amazon through the following links the proceeds will go towards the Ecuador healing retreat center.

Leopard slug

The Eyes of Slugs and Snails

Slugs and snails have two pairs of retractable tentacles on their head. The upper, optic tentacles, have light-sensitive eyespots on the ends. Each eye-stalk can move independently and can be re-grown if lost. The eye-stalks are also used for smell. lugs (and snails) do have eyes, two of them, they sit on top of two tentacles (called eye stalks) on the top of their heads! They do not see colour and form as well as we do but they can still make out shades of light and dark

A Roman snail’s head. [CK]

Observing a Roman snail crawling around, its eyes are easily seen: They are at the larger tentacles’ tips. Without a magnification, the Roman snail’s eye can be recognized as a black spot in the tentacles’ terminal knobs. The snail examines its environment using its tentacles, withdrawing them quickly when it touches an obstacle. Especially the longer tentacles with the eyes are often withdrawn. This poses the question, how good a snail’s eyesight really is.

Among gastropods, terrestrial pulmonate snails, such as the Roman snail, are among the most highly developed groups. This might best be explained by those snail groups having had to undergo most evolutionary changes to adapt to life on dry land. Comparing the eyes of all gastropods, all possible evolutionary stages can be seen. Like among all molluscs, in snails as well the development of the sense of sight is closely connected with their way of life. But, contrary for example to bivalves – mussels and clams – snails always have a head, even if they live in an almost immobile fashion.

A limpet at its custromary resting place.
Source: Morris, Currie: Rocky Shore Ecology.

Especially in those gastropod groups with an almost immobile way of life, the simplest construction of eyes can be found. Among those snail groups mainly are the limpets (Patellidae). Limpets never leave the rock they are at home on, and their movement is limited to the path between settling place and feeding place

Limax maximus

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Limax maximus
Limax maximus 5.jpg

Limax maximus (literally, “biggest slug”), known by the common names great grey slug and leopard slug, is a species of slug in the family Limacidae, the keeled slugs.[3] It is among the largest keeled slugs, Limax cinereoniger being the largest.

Limax maximus is the type species of the genus Limax. The adult slug measures 10-20 cm (4-8 in) in length and is generally a light greyish or grey-brown with darker spots and blotches, although the coloration and exact patterning of the body of this slug species is quite variable.

This species has a very unusual and distinctive mating method, where the pair of slugs use a thick thread of mucus to hang suspended in the air from a tree branch or other structure.

Although native to Europe, this species has been accidentally introduced to many other parts of the world.


External anatomy

The body length of the adult is 10-20 cm (4-8 in).[4]

The greater part of the body is rounded, but there is a short keel on its tail, with about 48 longitudinal rows of elongate, detached tubercles.[5] The body color is pale-grey, ash-colored, brownish or sometimes yellowish-white. The body is longitudinally streaked or spotted with black. The pattern of spotting is variable. The shield is always black-spotted. The sole of the foot is a uniform ash or yellowish-ash color.[6] The foot-fringe is pale, with a row of minute submarginal blackish tubercles.[5]

Drawing of color variability of Limax maximus

The tentacles are very long and slender.[5] The reproductive pore is near the base of the right upper tentacle.[7]

The shield is oblong, about one third of the total length of the animal. The shield is rounded in front, angular behind, and forming an angle of about 80 degrees when in motion, usually of a similar tint to the body, but boldly marbled or maculate with black, somewhat concentrically and interruptedly ridged around a sub-posterior nucleus.[5]

The pneumostome is just posterior to the midpoint of the mantle, as it is in all Limacidae.

The mucus is colorless and iridescent, and not very adhesive.[5]

Although color varieties have no actual taxonomic significance, a large number of color varieties have been described, prominent among them being the varieties serpentinusvulgariscellarius (typical), johnstonimaculatusferrussaciobscurusfasciatus and rufescens, of Alfred Moquin-Tandon, and cornaliee, of Pini.

The shell of Limax maximus is reduced and internal, under the shield. The occurrence of this internal shell was known to Pliny the Elder; the shell was used by the ancient physicians for the sake of its carbonate of lime.[9]

The calcitic shell is situated beneath the hinder part of the shield, and is perceptible through the skin. The color of the shell is whitish. The shape of the shell is oblong-oval and thin, slightly convex above, and correspondingly concave beneath, with a membranous margin. The apex or nucleus is at the posterior margin but inclined towards the left side, and forming the apophysis by which the shell is organically attached to the animal.[5] The length of the shell is 13 mm (1/2 inch) and the width of the shell is 7 mm (1/4 inch).[5] Shells of different Limacidae species are undiagnostic: in other words, they are not helpful for identification purpose.

Digestive system: The formula of the radula is: 62-73/ × 138-157.[2] The intestine has six convolutions and is without a caecum.[7] Of the six convolutions of the intestine, four are imbedded in the liver, and two hang freely in the body cavity.[7]

The nervous system is composed of the typical ganglia. The pedal ganglia are placed beneath the radula sac and joined together by an anterior and a posterior commissure. The abdominal ganglion lies a little to the right of the median line. The visceral ganglia occupy the angle between the lingual sheath and the oesophagus and the buccal ganglia are widely separated but joined together by a commissure nearly as thick as the ganglia themselves.[5]

Reproductive system: The hermaphrodite gland (HG) is elongated and large, and is connected with spermoviduct (SO) by means of the hermaphrodite duct (HD) which takes its course through a portion of the albumen gland (AG). The spermoviduct is thick and well convoluted, and separates further down into a vas deferens or sperm-duct (VD) and an oviduct (OV). The former opens into the upper end of a very long penis (P), to which a strong retractor muscle (PRM) is attached. The lower portion of the penis unites with that of the oviduct at the genital orifice, so that there is no vestibule. The receptaculum seminis (RS) opens into the lower end of the penis near the junction of the two ducts.[7]


Mammatus cloud – Wikipedia


Mammatus (mamma or mammatocumulus), meaning “mammary cloud“, is a cellular pattern of pouches hanging underneath the base of a cloud, typically cumulonimbus rainclouds, although they may be attached to other classes of parent clouds. The name mammatus is derived from the Latin mamma (meaning “udder” or “breast”).

Tammy Towers Parry, MD
#Keystone The Gate just reopening #TheStormIsUponUs God Bless America ~Dr Tammy

Mongol Empire


largest   con·tig·u·ous  empire in history second larget empire. British empire was the largest empire in history.

  1. sharing a common border; touching.
    “the 48 contiguous states”
    in contact




    • next or together in sequence.
      “five hundred contiguous dictionary entries”


Golden Horde


The Golden Horde or Ulug Ulus – lit. “Great State” in Turkic was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. Wikipedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the Mongol khanate established in the 13th century. For other uses, see Golden Horde (disambiguation).

Golden Horde
Ulus of Jochi[a]
Зүчийн улс
Flag of Golden Horde
Flag as shown in Dulcert’s 1339 map (other sources claim that the Golden Horde was named for the yellow banner of the khan[3]).

Preceded by

Succeeded by
Mongol Empire
Cuman-Kipchak Confederation
Volga Bulgaria
Kazakh Khanate
Qasim Khanate
Khanate of Kazan
Astrakhan Khanate
Uzbek Khanate
Crimean Khanate
Khanate of Sibir
Khanate of Khiva
Timurid Empire
Nogai Khanate
  1. ^ Their state came to be known in historiography as the Golden Horde or the ulus (“people” or “patrimony”) of Djochi, while the contemporaries simply referred to it as the Great Horde (ulu orda).[1]
  2. ^ Official language since the inception of the Golden Horde, used in chancery.
  3. ^ Especially the western Kipchak dialects, this language spoken by the majority of the inhabitants of the Black Sea steppe who were non-Mongol Turks, and those in the Khan’s army. Shift from Mongol to Turkic occurred in the 1350s, or earlier, also used in chancery.

The Golden Horde (MongolianАлтан Ордromanized: Altan OrdKazakhАлтын ОрдаAltın OrdaTatarАлтын УрдаAltın Urda) or Ulug Ulus – lit. “Great State” in Turkic[7] was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.[8] With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.[9]

After the death of Batu Khan (the founder of the Golden Horde) in 1255, his dynasty flourished for a full century, until 1359, though the intrigues of Nogai instigated a partial civil war in the late 1290s. The Horde’s military power peaked during the reign of Uzbeg Khan (1312–1341), who adopted Islam. The territory of the Golden Horde at its peak included most of Eastern Europe from the Urals to the Danube River, and extended east deep into Siberia. In the south, the Golden Horde’s lands bordered on the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, and the territories of the Mongol dynasty known as the Ilkhanate.[9]

The khanate experienced violent internal political disorder beginning in 1359, before it briefly reunited (1381–1395) under Tokhtamysh. However, soon after the 1396 invasion of Timur, the founder of the Timurid Empire, the Golden Horde broke into smaller Tatar khanates which declined steadily in power. At the start of the 15th century, the Horde began to fall apart. By 1466, it was being referred to simply as the “Great Horde“. Within its territories there emerged numerous predominantly Turkic-speaking khanates. These internal struggles allowed the northern vassal state of Muscovy to rid itself of the “Tatar Yoke” at the Great Stand on the Ugra River in 1480. The Crimean Khanate and the Kazakh Khanate, the last remnants of the Golden Horde, survived until 1783 and 1847 respectively

Mongol Empire – Wikipedia

But Batu, ruler of the Golden Horde, refused to come to the kurultai, claiming that he was ill and that the Mongolian climate was too harsh for him. The resulting …

1206 (unification of Mongolia)‎: ‎4,000,000 km2 …
1294 (Kublai’s death)‎: ‎23,500,000 km2 (9,100,…
1227 (Genghis Khan’s death)‎: ‎12,000,000 km2 …
1309 (last formal reunification)‎: ‎24,000,000 km2 …

The name Golden Horde, a partial calque of Russian Золотая Орда (Zolotája Ordá), itself supposedly a partial calque of Turkic Altan Orda, is said to have been inspired by the golden color of the tents the Mongols lived in during wartime, or an actual golden tent used by Batu Khan or by Uzbek Khan,[10] or to have been bestowed by the Slavic tributaries to describe the great wealth of the khan. The Turkic word orda means “palace”, “camp” or “headquarters”, in this case the headquarters of the khan, being the capital of the khanate, metonymically extended to the khanate itself. It was not until the 16th century that Russian chroniclers begin explicitly using the term “Golden Horde” to refer to this particular successor khanate of the Mongol Empire. The first known use of the term, in 1565, in the Russian chronicle History of Kazan, applied it to the Ulus of Batu (Russian: Улуса Батыя), centered on Sarai.[11][12] In contemporary Persian, Armenian and Muslim writings, and in the records of the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries such as the Yuanshi and the Jami’ al-tawarikh, the khanate was called the “Ulus of Jochi” (“realm of Jochi” in Mongolian), “Dasht-i-Qifchaq” (Qipchaq Steppe) or “Khanate of the Qipchaq” and “Comania” (Cumania).[13][14]

The eastern or left wing (or “left hand” in official Mongolian-sponsored Persian sources) was referred to as the Blue Horde in Russian chronicles and as the White Horde in Timurid sources (e.g. Zafar-Nameh). Western scholars have tended to follow the Timurid sources’ nomenclature and call the left wing the White Horde. But Ötemish Hajji (fl. 1550), a historian of Khwarezm, called the left wing the Blue Horde, and since he was familiar with the oral traditions of the khanate empire, it seems likely that the Russian chroniclers were correct, and that the khanate itself called its left wing the Blue Horde.[15] The khanate apparently used the term White Horde to refer to its right wing, which was situated in Batu’s home base in Sarai and controlled the ulus. However, the designations Golden Horde, Blue Horde, and White Horde have not been encountered in the sources of the Mongol period.[16]


If you order any product on Amazon through the following links the proceeds will go towards the Ecuador healing retreat center.

Mongol origins (1225–1241)

At his death in 1227, Genghis Khan divided the Mongol Empire amongst his four sons as appanages, but the Empire remained united under the supreme khan. Jochi was the eldest, but he died six months before Genghis. The westernmost lands occupied by the Mongols, which included what is today southern Russia and Kazakhstan, were given to Jochi’s eldest sons, Batu Khan, who eventually became ruler of the Blue Horde, and Orda Khan, who became the leader of the White Horde.[17][18] In 1235, Batu with the great general Subutai began an invasion westwards, first conquering the Bashkirs and then moving on to Volga Bulgaria in 1236. From there he conquered some of the southern steppes of present-day Ukraine in 1237, forcing many of the local Cumans to retreat westward. The Mongol campaign against the Kypchaks and Cumans had already started under Jochi and Subutai in 1216–1218 when the Merkits took shelter among them. By 1239 a large portion of Cumans were driven out of the Crimean peninsula, and it became one of the appanages of the Mongol Empire.[19] The remnants of the Crimean Cumans survived in the Crimean mountains, and they would, in time, mix with other groups in the Crimea (including Greeks, Goths, and Mongols) to form the Crimean Tatar population. Moving north, Batu began the Mongol invasion of Rus’ and spent three years subjugating the principalities of former Kievan Rus’, whilst his cousins MöngkeKadan, and Güyük moved southwards into Alania.

Decisive Golden Horde victory in the Battle of Mohi

Using the migration of the Cumans as their casus belli, the Mongols continued west, raiding Poland and Hungary, which culminated in Mongol victories at the battles of Legnica and Mohi. In 1241, however, Ögedei Khan died in the Mongolian homeland. Batu turned back from his siege of Vienna but did not return to Mongolia, rather opting to stay at the Volga River. His brother Orda returned to take part in the succession. The Mongol armies would never again travel so far west. In 1242, after retreating through Hungary, destroying Pest in the process, and subjugating Bulgaria,[20] Batu established his capital at Sarai, commanding the lower stretch of the Volga River, on the site of the Khazar capital of Atil. Shortly before that, the younger brother of Batu and Orda, Shiban, was given his own enormous ulus east of the Ural Mountains along the Ob and Irtysh Rivers.

While the Mongolian language was undoubtedly in general use at the court of Batu, few Mongol texts written in the territory of the Golden Horde have survived, perhaps because of the prevalent general illiteracy. According to Grigor’ev, yarliq, or decrees of the Khans, were written in Mongol, then translated into the Cuman language. The existence of Arabic-Mongol and Persian-Mongol dictionaries dating from the middle of the 14th century and prepared for the use of the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate suggests that there was a practical need for such works in the chancelleries handling correspondence with the Golden Horde. It is thus reasonable to conclude that letters received by the Mamluks – if not also written by them – must have been in Mongol.[20]

Golden Age

Batu Khan establishes the Golden Horde.


Batu Khan (1242–1256)

When the Great Khatun Töregene invited Batu to elect the next Emperor of the Mongol Empire in 1242, he declined to attend the kurultai and instead stayed at the Volga River. Although Batu excused himself by saying he was suffering from old age and illness, it seems that he did not support the election of Güyük Khan. Güyük and Büri, a grandson of Chagatai Khan, had quarreled violently with Batu at a victory banquet during the Mongol occupation of Eastern Europe. He sent his brothers to the kurultai, and the new Khagan of the Mongols was elected in 1246.

All the senior Rus’ princes, including Yaroslav II of VladimirDaniel of Galicia, and Sviatoslav III of Vladimir, acknowledged Batu’s supremacy. Originally Batu ordered Daniel to turn the administration of Galicia over to the Mongols, but Daniel personally visited Batu in 1245 and pledged allegiance to him. After returning from his trip, Daniel was visibly influenced by the Mongols, and equipped his army in the Mongol fashion. Austrian visitors to his camp remarked that all of Daniel’s horsemen dressed like Mongols. The only one who did not was Daniel himself, who dressed according to “the Russian custom.”[21] Michael of Chernigov, who had killed a Mongol envoy in 1240, refused to show obeisance and was executed in 1246.[22]

When Güyük called Batu to pay him homage several times, Batu sent Yaroslav II, Andrey II of Vladimir and Alexander Nevsky to Karakorum in Mongolia in 1247. Yaroslav II never returned and died in Mongolia. He was probably poisoned by Töregene Khatun, who probably did it to spite Batu and even her own son Güyük, because he did not approve of her regency.[23] Güyük appointed Andrey Grand prince of Vladimir-Suzdal and Alexander prince of Kiev. However when they returned, Andrey went to Vladimir while Alexander went to Novgorod instead. A bishop by the name of Cyril went to Kiev and found it so devastated that he abandoned the place and went further east instead.[24][25]

In 1248, Güyük demanded Batu come eastward to meet him, a move that some contemporaries regarded as a pretext for Batu’s arrest. In compliance with the order, Batu approached, bringing a large army. When Güyük moved westwards, Tolui‘s widow and a sister of Batu’s stepmother Sorghaghtani warned Batu that the Jochids might be his target. Güyük died on the way, in what is now Xinjiang, at about the age of 42. Although some modern historians believe that he died of natural causes because of deteriorating health,[26] he may have succumbed to the combined effects of alcoholism and gout, or he may have been poisoned. William of Rubruck and a Muslim chronicler state that Batu killed the imperial envoy, and one of his brothers murdered the Great Khan Güyük, but these claims are not completely corroborated by other major sources. Güyük’s widow Oghul Qaimish took over as regent, but she would be unable to keep the succession within her branch of the family.

With the assistance of Batu, Möngke succeeded as Great Khan in 1251. Utilizing the discovery of a plot designed to remove him, Möngke as the new Great Khan began a purge of his opponents. Estimates of the deaths of aristocrats, officials, and Mongol commanders range from 77 to 300. Batu became the most influential person in the Mongol Empire as his friendship with Möngke ensured the unity of the realm. Batu, Möngke, and other princely lines shared rule over the area from Afghanistan to Turkey. Batu allowed Möngke’s census takers to operate freely in his realm. In 1252–1259, Möngke conducted a census of the Mongol Empire, including IranAfghanistanGeorgiaArmenia, Rus’, Central Asia, and North China. While the census in China was completed in 1252, Novgorod in the far northwest was not counted until winter 1258–59.[27]


Berke (1258–1266)

After Batu died in 1256, his son Sartaq Khan was appointed by Möngke Khan. As soon as he returned from the court of the Great Khan in Mongolia, Sartaq died. The infant Ulaghchi succeeded him under the regency of Boragchin Khatun. The khatun summoned all the Rus’ princes to Sarai to renew their patents. In 1256 Andrey traveled to Sarai to ask for pardon. He was once again reappointed as prince of Vladimir-Suzdal.[29]

Ulaghchi died soon after and Batu Khan’s younger brother Berke, who had been converted to Islam, was enthroned as khan of the Golden Horde in 1258.[30]

In 1256, Daniel of Galicia openly defied the Mongols and ousted their troops in northern Podolia. In 1257, he repelled Mongol assaults led by the prince Kuremsa on Ponyzia and Volhynia and dispatched an expedition with the aim of taking Kiev. Despite initial successes, in 1259 a Mongol force under Boroldai entered Galicia and Volhynia and offered an ultimatum: Daniel was to destroy his fortifications or Boroldai would assault the towns. Daniel complied and pulled down the city walls. In 1259 Berke launched savage attacks on Lithuania and Poland, and demanded the submission of Béla IV, the Hungarian monarch, and the French King Louis IX in 1259 and 1260.[31] His assault on Prussia in 1259/60 inflicted heavy losses on the Teutonic Order.[32] The Lithuanians were probably tributary in the 1260s, when reports reached the Curia that they were in league with the Mongols.[33]

Mongol agents began taken censuses in the Rus’ principalities. Novgorod in the far northwest was not counted until winter 1258–59. There was an uprising in Novgorod against the Mongol census, but Alexander Nevsky forced the city to submit to the census and taxation.[27]

In 1261, Berke approved the establishment of a church in Sarai.[34]

Toluid Civil War (1260–1264)

After Möngke Khan died in 1259, the Toluid Civil War broke out between Kublai Khan and Ariq Böke. While Hulagu Khan of the Ilkhanate supported Kublai, Berke sided with Ariq Böke.[35] There is evidence that Berke minted coins in Ariq Böke’s name,[36] but he remained militarily netural. After the defeat of Ariq Böke in 1264, he freely acceded to Kublai’s enthronement.[37] However, some elites of the White Horde joined Ariq Böke’s resistance.

Berke–Hulagu war (1262–1266)

The Golden Horde army defeats the Ilkhanate at the battle of Terek in 1262. Many of Hulagu’s men drowned in the Terek River while withdrawing.

Möngke ordered the Jochid and Chagatayid families to join Hulagu’s expedition to Iran. Berke‘s persuasion might have forced his brother Batu to postpone Hulagu’s operation, little suspecting that it would result in eliminating the Jochid predominance there for several years. During the reign of Batu or his first two successors, the Golden Horde dispatched a large Jochid delegation to participate in Hulagu‘s expedition in the Middle East in 1256/57.

One of the Jochid princes who joined Hulagu’s army was accused of witchcraft and sorcery against Hulagu. After receiving permission from Berke, Hulagu executed him. After that two more Jochid princes died suspiciously. According to some Muslim sources, Hulagu refused to share his war booty with Berke in accordance with Genghis Khan’s wish. Berke was a devoted Muslim who had had a close relationship with the Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta’sim, who had been killed by Hulagu in 1258. The Jochids believed that Hulagu’s state eliminated their presence in the Transcaucasus.[38] Those events increased the anger of Berke and the war between the Golden Horde and the Ilkhanate soon broke out in 1262.

Ariq Böke had earlier placed Chagatai’s grandson Alghu as Chagatayid Khan, ruling Central Asia. He took control of Samarkand and Bukhara. When the Muslim elites and the Jochid retainers in Bukhara declared their loyalty to Berke, Alghu smashed the Golden Horde appanages in Khorazm. Alghu insisted Hulagu attack the Golden Horde; he accused Berke of purging his family in 1252. In Bukhara, he and Hulagu slaughtered all the retainers of the Golden Horde and reduced their families into slavery, sparing only the Great Khan Kublai’s men.[42] After Berke gave his allegiance to Kublai, Alghu declared war on Berke, seizing Otrar and Khorazm. While the left bank of Khorazm would eventually be retaken, Berke had lost control over Transoxiana. In 1264 Berke marched past Tiflis to fight against Hulagu’s successor Abaqa, but he died en route.

Mengu-Timur (1266–1280)

Berke left no sons, so Batu’s grandson Mengu-Timur was nominated by Kublai and succeeded his uncle Berke.[43] However, Mengu-Timur secretly supported the Ögedeid prince Kaidu against Kublai and the Ilkhanate. After the defeat of Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq, a peace treaty was concluded in 1267 granting one-third of Transoxiana to Kaidu and Mengu-Timur.[44] In 1268, when a group of princes operating in Central Asia on Kublai’s behalf mutinied and arrested two sons of the Qaghan (Great Khan), they sent them to Mengu-Timur. One of them, Nomoghan, favorite of Kublai, was located in the Crimea.[45] Mengu-Timur might have struggled with Hulagu’s successor Abagha for a brief period of time, but the Great Khan Kublai forced them to sign a peace treaty.[46] He was allowed to take his share in Persia. Independently from the Khan, Nogai expressed his desire to ally with Baibars in 1271. Despite the fact that he was proposing a joint attack on the Ilkhanate with the Mamluks of Egypt, Mengu-Timur congratulated Abagha when Baraq was defeated by the Ilkhan in 1270.[47]

In 1267, Mengu-Timur issued a diploma – jarliq – to exempt Rus’ clergy from any taxation and gave to the Genoese and Venice exclusive trading rights in Caffa and Azov. Some of Mengu-Timur’s relatives converted to Christianity at the same time and settled among the Rus’ people. One of them was a prince who settled in Rostov and became known as Tsarevich Peter of the Horde (Peter Ordynsky). Even though Nogai invaded the Orthodox Christian Byzantine Empire in 1271, the Khan sent his envoys to maintain friendly relationship with Michael VIII Palaiologos, who sued for peace and married one of his daughters, Euphrosyne Palaiologina, to Nogai. Mengu-Timur ordered the Grand prince of Rus to allow German merchants free travel through his lands. This gramota says:

Mengu-Timur’s word to Prince Yaroslav: give the German merchants way into your lands. From Prince Yaroslav to the people of Riga, to the great and the young, and to all: your way is clear through my lands; and who comes to fight, with them I do as I know; but for the merchant the way is clear.[48]

This decree also allowed Novgorod’s merchants to travel throughout the Suzdal lands without restraint.[49] Mengu Timur honored his vow: when the Danes and the Livonian Knights attacked Novgorod Republic in 1269, the Khan’s great basqaq (darughachi), Amraghan, and many Mongols assisted the Rus’ army assembled by the Grand duke Yaroslav. The Germans and the Danes were so cowed that they sent gifts to the Mongols and abandoned the region of Narva.[50] The Mongol Khan’s authority extended to all Rus’ principalities, and in 1274–75 the census took place in all Rus’ cities, including Smolensk and Vitebsk.[51]

In 1277, Mengu-Timur launched a campaign against the Alans north of the Caucasus. Along with the Mongol army were also Rus’, who took the fortified stronghold of the Alans, Dadakov, in 1278.[52]

Dual khanship (1281–1299)


In 1283, Mengu-Timur converted to Islam and abandoned state affairs. Rumors spread that the khan was mentally ill and only cared for clerics and sheikhs. In 1285, Talabuga and Nogai invaded Hungary. While Nogai was successful in subduing Slovakia, Talabuga got stuck north of the Carpathian Mountains. Talabuga’s soldiers got angry and sacked Galicia and Volynia instead. In 1286, Talabuga and Nogai attacked Poland and ravaged the country. After returning, Talabuga overthrew Töde Möngke, who was left to live in peace. Talabuga’s army made unsuccessful attempts to invade the Ilkhanate in 1288 and 1290.[60]

During a punitive expedition against the Circassians, Talabuga’s became resentful of Nogai, who he believed did not provide him with adequate support during the invasions of Hungary and Poland. Talabuga challenged Nogai, but was defeated in a coup and replaced with Toqta in 1291.[61]

Some of the Rus’ princes complained to Toqta about Dmitry. Mikhail Yaroslavich was summoned to appear before Nogai in Sarai, and Daniel of Moscow declined to come. In 1293 Toqta sent a punitive expedition led by his brother, Dyuden to Rus’ and Belarus to punish those stubborn subjects. The latter sacked fourteen major cities, finally forcing Dmitry to abdicate. Nogai was annoyed by this independent action and sent his wife to Toqta in 1293 to remind him who was in charge. In the same year, Nogai sent an army to Serbia and forced the king to acknowledge himself as a vassal.[62]

Nogai’s daughter married a son of Kublai’s niece, Kelmish, who was wife of a Qongirat general of the Golden Horde. Nogai was angry with Kelmish’s family because her Buddhist son despised his Muslim daughter. For this reason, he demanded Toqta send Kelmish’s husband to him. Nogai’s independent actions related to Rus’ princes and foreign merchants had already annoyed Toqta. Toqta thus refused and declared war on Nogai. Toqta was defeated in their first battle. Nogai’s army turned their attention to Caffa and Soldaia, looting both cities.. Within two years, Toqta returned and killed Nogai in 1299 at the Kagamlik, near the Dnieper. Toqta had his son stationed troops in Saqchi and along the Danube as far as the Iron Gate.[63] Nogai’s son Chaka of Bulgaria, first escaped to the Alans, and then Bulgaria where he briefly ruled as emperor before he was murdered by Theodore Svetoslav on the orders of Toqta.[64]

After Mengu-Timur died, rulers of the Golden Horde withdrew their support from Kaidu, the head of the House of Ögedei. Kaidu tried to restore his influence in the Golden Horde by sponsoring his own candidate Kobeleg against Bayan (r. 1299–1304), Khan of the White Horde.[65] After taking military support from Toqta, Bayan asked help from the Yuan dynasty and the Ilkhanate to organize a unified attack on the Chagatai Khanate under the leadership of Kaidu and his number two Duwa. However, the Yuan court was unable to send quick military support.[66]

General peace (1299–1312)

The division of the Mongol Empire, c. 1300, with the Golden Horde in yellow

The Bulgarian Empire was still tributary to the Mongols in 1308.[67]

From 1300 to 1303 a severe drought occurred in the areas surrounding the Black Sea. However the troubles were soon overcome and conditions in the Golden Horde rapidly improved under Toqta’s reign. After the defeat of Nogai Khan, his followers either fled to Podolia or remained under the service of Toqta, to become what would eventually be known as the Nogai Horde[68]

Toqta established the Byzantine-Mongol alliance by Maria, an illegitimate daughter of Andronikos II Palaiologos.[69] A report reached Western Europe that Toqta was highly favourable to the Christians.[70] According to Muslim observers, however, Toqta remained an idol-worshiper (Buddhism and Tengerism) and showed favour to religious men of all faiths, though he preferred Muslims.[71]

He demanded that the Ilkhan Ghazan and his successor Oljeitu give Azerbaijan back but was refused. Then he sought assistance from Egypt against the Ilkhanate. Toqta made his man ruler in Ghazna, but he was expelled by its people. Toqta dispatched a peace mission to the Ilkhan Gaykhatu in 1294, and peace was maintained mostly uninterrupted until 1318.[72]

Toqta arrested the Italian residents of Sarai and besieged Caffa in 1307. The cause was apparently Toqta’s displeasure at the Genoese slave trade of his subjects, who were mostly sold as soldiers to Egypt.[75] In 1308, Caffa was plundered by the Mongols.[76]

During the late reign of Toqta, tensions between princes of Tver and Moscow became violent. Daniel of Moscow seized the town of Kolomna from the Principality of Ryazan, which turned to Toqta for protection. However Daniel was able to beat both Ryazan and Mongol troops in 1301. His successor Yury of Moscow also seized Pereslavl-Zalessky. Toqta considered eliminating the special status of the Grand principality of Vladimir, and placing all the Rus’ princes on the same level. Toqta decided to personally visit northern Rus’ to settle the conflict between the princes, but he fell ill and died while crossing the Volga in 1313.[77]


Öz Beg Khan (1313–1341)

Dmitri avenging the death of his father in the ordo (palace) of Uzbeg Khan, killing Yury.

Territories of the Golden Horde under Öz Beg Khan.

After Öz Beg Khan assumed the throne in 1313, he adopted Islam as the state religion. He built a large mosque in the city of Solkhat in the Crimea in 1314 and proscribed Buddhism and Shamanism among the Mongols in the Golden Horde. By 1315, Öz Beg had successfully Islamicized the Horde and killed Jochid princes and Buddhist lamas who opposed his religious policy.[78] Under the reign of Öz Beg, trade caravans went unmolested and there was general order in the Golden Horde. When Ibn Battuta visited Sarai in 1333, he found it to be a large and beautiful city with vast streets and fine markets where Mongols, Alans, Kypchaks, Circassians, Rus’, and Greeks each had their own quarters. Merchants had a special walled section of the city all to themselves.[79]

Öz Beg continued the alliance with the Mamluks begun by Berke and his predecessors. He kept a friendly relationship with the Mamluk Sultan and his shadow Caliph in Cairo. In 1320, the Jochid princess Tulunbay was married Al-Nasir MuhammadSultan of Egypt. She died soon after.[80]

The Golden Horde invaded the Ilkhanate under Abu Sa’id in 1318, 1324, and 1335. Öz Beg’s ally Al-Nasir refused to attack Abu Sa’id because the Ilkhan and the Mamluk Sultan signed a peace treaty in 1323. In 1326 Uzbeg reopened friendly relations with the Yuan dynasty and began to send tributes thereafter.[81] From 1339 he received annually 24,000 ding in Yuan paper currency from the Jochid appanages in China.[82] When the Ilkhanate collapsed after Abu Sa’id’s death, its senior-beys approached Öz Beg in their desperation to find a leader, but the latter declined after consulting with his senior emir, Qutluq Timür.

With Öz Beg’s assistance, the Grand duke Mikhail Yaroslavich won the battle against the party in Novgorod in 1316. While Mikhail was asserting his authority, his rival Yury of Moscow ingratiated himself with Öz Beg so that he appointed him chief of the Rus’ princes and gave him his sister, Konchak, in marriage. After spending three years at Uzbeg’s court, Yury returned with an army of Mongols and Mordvins. After he ravaged the villages of Tver, Yury was defeated by Mikhail in December 1318, and his new wife and the Mongol general, Kawgady, were captured. While she stayed in Tver, Konchak, who converted to Christianity and adopted the name Agatha, died. Mikhail’s rivals suggested to Öz Beg that he had poisoned the Khan’s sister and revolted against his rule. Mikhail was summoned to Sarai and executed on November 22, 1318.[86][87] Yuri became grand duke once more. Yuri’s brother Ivan accompanied the Mongol general Akhmyl in suppressing a revolt by Rostov in 1320. In 1322, Mikhail’s son, Dmitry, seeking revenge for his father’s murder, went to Sarai and persuaded the Khan that Yury had appropriated a large portion of the tribute due to the Horde. Yury was summoned to the Horde for a trial, but he was killed by Dmitry before any formal investigation. Eight months later, Dmitry was also executed by the Horde for his crime. The title of grand duke went to Aleksandr Mikhailovich.[88]

In 1327, the baskak Shevkal, cousin of Öz Beg, arrived in Tver from the Horde, with a large retinue. They took up residence at Aleksander‘s palace. Rumors spread that Shevkal wanted to occupy the throne for himself and introduce Islam to the city. When, on 15 August 1327, the Mongols tried to take a horse from a deacon named Dyudko, he cried for help and a mob killed the Mongols. Shevkal and his remaining guards were burnt alive. The incident in Tver caused Öz Beg to begin backing Moscow as the leading Rus’ state. Ivan I Kalita was granted the title of grand prince and given the right to collect taxes from other Rus’ potentates. Öz Beg also sent Ivan at the head of an army of 50,000 soldiers to punish Tver. Aleksander was shown mercy in 1335, however, when Moscow requested that he and his son Feoder be quartered in Sarai by orders of the Khan on October 29, 1339.[89]

In 1323 Grand Duke Gediminas of Lithuania gained control of Kiev and installed his brother Fedor as prince, but the principality’s tribute to the Khan continued. On a campaign a few years later, the Lithuanians under Fedor included the Khan’s baskak in their entourage.[90]


Great troubles (1359–1381)

The Battle of Kulikovo in 1380

Berdi Beg was killed in a coup by his brother Qulpa in 1359. Qulpa’s two sons were Christians and bore the Russian names, Michael and Ivan, which outraged the Muslim populace of the Golden Horde. In 1360, Qulpa’s brother Nawruz Beg revolted against the khan and killed him and his sons. In 1361, a descendant of Shiban (5th son of Jochi), was invited by some grandees to seize the throne. Khidr rebelled against Nawruz, whose own lieutenant betrayed him and handed him over to be executed. Khidr was slain by his own son, Timur Khwaja, in the same year. Timur Khwaja reigned for only five weeks before descendants of Öz Beg Khan seized power.[97]

By 1360, Urus Khan had set up court in Sighnaq. He was named Urus, which means Russian in Turkish language, because his mother was apparently a Rus’ princess. In 1372, Urus marched west and occupied Sarai. His nephew and lieutenant Tokhtamysh deserted him and went to Timur for assistance. Tokhtamysh attacked Urus, killing his son Kutlug-Buka, but lost the battle and fled to Samarkand. Soon after, another general Edigu deserted Urus and went over to Timur. Timur personally attacked Urus in 1376 but the campaign ended indecisively. Urus died the next year and was succeeded by his son, Timur-Melik, who immediately lost Sighnaq to Tokhtamysh. In 1378, Tokhtamysh conquered Sarai.[99]

By the 1380s, the Shaybanids and Qashan attempted to break free of the Khan’s power.

Tokhtamysh (1381–1395)

Emir Timur and his forces advance against the Golden Horde, Khan Tokhtamysh.

Tokhtamysh besieges Moscow.

Tokhtamysh attacked Mamai, who had recently suffered a loss against Muscovy, and defeated him in 1381, thus briefly reestablishing the Golden Horde as a dominant regional power. Mamai fled to the Genoese who killed him soon after. Tokhtamysh sent an envoy to the Rus’ states to resume their tributary status, but the envoy only made it as far as Nizhny Novgorod before he was stopped. Tokhtamysh immediately seized all the boats on the Volga to ferry his army across and commenced the Siege of Moscow (1382), which fell after three days under a false truce. The next year most of the Rus’ princes once again made obeisance to the khan and received patents from him.[100] Tokhtamysh also crushed the Lithuanian army at Poltava in the next year.[101] Władysław II Jagiełło, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland, accepted his supremacy and agreed to pay tribute in turn for a grant of Rus’ territory.[102]

Elated by his success, Tokhtamysh invaded Azerbaijan in 1386 and seized Tabriz. He ordered money with his name on it coined in Khwarezm and sent envoys to Egypt to seek an alliance. In 1387, Timur sent an army into Azerbaijan and fought indecisively with the forces of the Golden Horde. Tokhtamysh invaded Transoxania and reached as far as Bukhara, but failed to take the city, and had to turn back. Timur retaliated by invading Khwarezm and destroyed Urgench. Tokhtamysh attacked Timur on the Syr Darya in 1389 with a massive army including RussiansBulgarsCircassians, and Alans. The battle ended indecisively. In 1391, Timur gathered an army 200,000 strong and defeated Tokhtamysh at the Battle of the Kondurcha River. Timur’s allies Temür Qutlugh and Edigu took the eastern half of the Golden Horde. Tokhtamysh returned in 1394, ravaging the region of Shirvan. In 1395, Timur annihilated Tokhtamysh’s army again at the Battle of the Terek River, destroyed his capital, looted the Crimean trade centers, and deported the most skillful craftsmen to his own capital in Samarkand. Timur’s forces reached as far north as Ryazan before turning back.[103]

Edigu (1395–1419)

Temür Qutlugh was chosen Khan in Sarai while Edigu became co-ruler, and Koirijak was appointed sovereign of the White Horde by Timur.[104] Tokhtamysh fled to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and asked Vytautas for assistance in retaking the Golden Horde in exchange for suzerainty over the Rus’ lands. In 1399, Vytautas and Tokhtamysh attacked Temür Qutlugh and Edigu at the Battle of the Vorskla River but were defeated. The Golden Horde victory secured KievPodolia, and some land in the lower Bug River basin. Tokhtamysh died in obscurity in Tyumen around 1405. His son Jalal al-Din fled to Lithuania and participated in the Battle of Grunwald against the Teutonic Order.[105]



Khanate of Sibir (1405)

The Khanate of Sibir was ruled by a dynasty originating with Taibuga in 1405 at Chimgi-Tura. After his death in 1428, the khanate was ruled by the Uzbek khan Abu’l-Khayr Khan. When he died in 1468, the khanate split in two, with the Shaybanid Ibak Khan situated in Chimgi-Tura, and the Taibugid Muhammad at the fortress of Sibir, from which the khanate derives its name.[107]

Uzbek Khanate (1428)

After 1419, the Golden Horde functionally ceased to exist. Ulugh Muhammad was officially Khan of the Golden Horde but his authority was limited to the lower banks of the Volga where Tokhtamysh’s other son Kepek also reigned. The Golden Horde’s influence was replaced in Eastern Europe by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, who Ulugh Muhammad turned to for support. The political situation in the Golden Horde did not stabilize. In 1422, the grandson of Urus KhanBarak Khan, attacked the reigning khans in the west. Within two years, Ulugh, Kepek, and another claimant Dawlat Berdi, were defeated. Ulugh Muhammad fled to Lithuania, Kepek tried to raid Odoyev and Ryazan but failed to establish himself in those regions, and Dawlat took advantage of the situation to seize Crimea. Barak defeated an invasion by Ulugh Beg in 1427 but was assassinated the next year. His successor, Abu’l-Khayr Khan, founded the Uzbek Khanate.[108]

Nogai Horde (1440s)

By the 1440s, a descendant of Edigu by the name of Musa bin Waqqas was ruling at Saray-Jük as an independent khan of the Nogai Horde.[109]

Khanate of Kazan (1445)

Ulugh Muhammad ousted Dawlat Berdi from Crimea. At the same time, the khan Hacı I Giray fled to Lithuania to ask Vytautas for support. In 1426, Ulugh Muhammad contributed troops to Vytautas’ war against Pskov. Despite the Golden Horde’s extremely reduced status, both Yury of Zvenigorod and Vasily Kosoy still visited Ulugh Muhammad’s court in 1432 to request a grand ducal patent. A year later, Ulugh Muhammad lost the throne to Sayid Ahmad I, a son of Tokhtamysh. Ulugh Muhammad fled to the town of Belev on the upper Oka River, where he came into conflict with the Grand Duchy of MuscovyVasily II of Moscow attempted to drive him out but was defeated at the Battle of Belyov. Ulugh Muhammad became master of Belev. Ulugh Muhammad continued to exert influence on Muscovy, occupying Gorodets in 1444. Vasily II even wanted him to issue him a patent for the throne, but Ulugh Muhammad attacked him instead at Murom in 1445. On 7 July, Vasily II was defeated and taken prisoner by Ulugh Muhammad at the Battle of Suzdal. Despite his victory, Ulugh Muhammad’s situation was pressed. The Golden Horde was no more, he had barely 10,000 soldiers, and thus could not press the advantage against Moscow. A few months later he released Vasily II for a ransom of 25,000 rubles. Unfortunately, Ulugh Muhammad was murdered by his son, Mäxmüd of Kazan, who fled to the middle Volga region and founded the Khanate of Kazan in 1445.[110] In 1447, Mäxmüd sent an army against Muscovy but was repelled. [111]

Crimean Khanate (1449)

In 1449, Hacı I Giray seized Crimea from Sayid Ahmad I, and founded the Crimean Khanate.[111]

Qasim Khanate (1452)

One of Ulugh Muhammad’s sons, Qasim Khan, fled to Moscow, where Vasily II granted him land that became the Qasim Khanate[111]

Kazakh Khanate (1458)

In 1458, Janibek Khan and Kerei Khan led 200,000 of Abu’l-Khayr Khan eastwards to the Chu River where Esen Buqa II of Moghulistan granted them pasture lands. After Abu’l-Khayr Khan died in 1467, they assumed leadership over most of his followers, and became the Kazakh Khanate.[112]

Great Horde (1459–1502)

In 1435, the khan Küchük Muhammad ousted Sayid Ahmad. He attacked Ryazan and suffered a major defeat against the forces of Vasily II. Sayid Ahmad continued to raid Muscovy and in 1449 made a direct attack on Moscow. However he was defeated by Muscovy’s ally Qasim Khan. In 1450, Küchük Muhammad attacked Ryazan but was turned back by a combined Russo-Tatar army. In 1451, Sayid Ahmad tried to take Moscow again and failed.[113]

Küchük Muhammad was succeeded by his son Mahmud bin Küchük in 1459, from which point on the Golden Horde came to be known as the Great Horde. Mahmud was succeeded by his brother Ahmed Khan bin Küchük in 1465. In 1469, Ahmed attacked and killed the Uzbek Abu’l-Khayr Khan. In the summer of 1470, Ahmed organized an attack against Moldavia, the Kingdom of Poland, and Lithuania. By August 20, the Moldavian forces under Stephen the Great defeated the Tatars at the battle of Lipnic. In 1474 and 1476, Ahmed insisted that Ivan III of Russia recognize the khan as his overlord. In 1480, Ahmed organized a military campaign against Moscow, resulting in a face off between two opposing armies known as the Great Stand on the Ugra River. Ahmed judged the conditions unfavorable and retreated. This incident formally ended the “Tatar Yoke” over Rus’ lands. On 6 January 1481, Ahmed was killed by Ibak Khan, the prince of the Khanate of Sibir, and Nogays at the mouth of the Donets River.[114]

Ahmed’s sons were unable to maintain the Great Horde. They attacked the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (which possessed much of the Ukraine at the time) in 1487–1491 and reached as far as Lublin in eastern Poland before being decisively beaten at Zaslavl.[115]

The Crimean Khanate, which had become a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in 1475, subjugated what remained of the Great Horde, sacking Sarai in 1502. After seeking refuge in Lithuania, Sheikh Ahmed, last Khan of the Horde, died in prison in Kaunas some time after 1504. According to other sources, he was released from the Lithuanian prison in 1527.[116]

Records of Golden Horde existence reach however as far as end of 18th century and it was mentioned in works of Russian publisher Nikolay Novikov in his work of 1773 “Ancient Russian Hydrography”.[117]

Astrakhan Khanate (1466)

After 1466, Mahmud bin Küchük‘s descendants continued to rule in Astrakhan as the khans of the Astrakhan Khanate.[118]


Wings of the Golden Horde

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

According to Rashid-al-Din Hamadani (1247–1318), Genghis Khan‘s eldest son, Jochi, had nearly 40 sons, of whom he names 14.[citation needed] When he died, they inherited their father’s dominions as fiefs under the rule of their brothers, Batu Khan, as supreme khan and Orda Khan, who, although the elder of the two, agreed that Batu enjoyed primacy as the Khan of the Golden Horde (Jochid Ulus).

Orda, along with some of his younger brothers, ruled the eastern (right) wing of the Golden Horde while Batu and others ruled the western (left) wing of it. These Hordes are known as the “White”, “Blue” and “Grey” (Shaybanid) Hordes in Slavic and Persian historiography. The two main divisions are also known as Batu’s Ulus (district) and Orda’s Ulus.

The relationship between color and direction can be explained by the Four Symbols commonly used in East Asia, the blue dragon is associated with the east and the white tiger is associated with the west. Under this traditional system in East Asia, the east is associated with the left side and the west is associated with the right side because the observer is assumed to be facing the south. Different authors use ‘Blue Horde’ and ‘White Horde’ with opposite definitions, which can lead to confusion and has created the need for checking the convention that individual authors use.[1]

Subdivisions and conflicts between sources[edit]

According to the Tarikh-i Dost Sultan written by Ötemish Hajji in Khiva in the 1550s, Batu’s ulus was officially known as the “White Horde”, Orda’s the “Blue Horde” and Shiban‘s the “Grey Horde”.

Blue horde

Eastern Wing sources

In Russian chronicles, the Blue Horde is described as the eastern wing of the Golden Horde. This wing was founded on allegiance to the western wing, which was being governed by the descendants of Orda Khan.[2] After the succession struggle of Batu’s line in the 1360s, known as “great troubles”, the authority of both wings of the Golden Horde passed to the eastern Jochids.

According to the Russian chronicles, the Blue Horde was located to the east of the Volga and is mentioned twice. The first time in connection with the great troubles, which was completed by the accession of Tokhtamysh (“tsar from blue horde”), and the second – with the invasion of Timur, in 1395.

In the horde: the powerful khan, Timur Aksak, from the East, from Blue Horde, the land of Samarkhiyskia, and is much confusion and mutiny to voivods in the horde and in Russia by his advent. …Neither king, son of king nor his tribe existed within its noyans, but such from the simple poor people, the common Tatars from Blue Horde, to the Iron Gate.[3]

Western Wing sources[edit]

On the contrary, some sources list the Blue Horde as the western wing of the Golden Horde.[4] A Persian composition of the 15th century, “Muntakhab atm-tavarikh- namu” by Muin ad-Din Natanzi (in the contemporary literature it still there is “by the anonymous author f iskandera”).[citation needed] It is said after story about the administration of the Golden Horde khan Toqta (r.1291-1312) in this work:

After him, the Ulus of Jochi was divided into two parts. Those, which relate to the left wing, i.e., the limits of ulug-taga, Sekiz-yagacha and Karatala to the limits of Tuysena, environments of Jend and Barchkenda, were affirmed after the descendants [Nogai], and they began to be called by the sultans of Ak-Horde; however, the right wing, which includes Ibir-Sibir, Russian, Libka, Ukek, Madzhar, Bulgar, Bashgird and Srai-Berke, was given to descendants [Tokhta], and they named them the sultans of Blue Horde.[5]

In the Persian tradition, blue and white colors indicate the opposite sides of light in comparison with the Turkish and the Mongolian.[citation needed]

Two divisions of the left wing of the Golden Horde[edit]

In Kazakhstan[citation needed], the division into White and Blue Hordes relates only to the eastern part of the Golden Horde. Accordingly, the Blue Horde is understood as appanage of Shiban, another son of Jochi, located between the right wing of Golden Horde and the horde of Orda Khan (in the territory of modern western Kazakhstan).[6]


Right wing

Batu Khan effectively founded the White Horde (or Blue Horde) upon the withdrawal from Europe in 1242. By 1245, Sarai, the capital of the Horde had been founded on the lower Volga. At the same time, the eastern lands of the Golden Horde were administered by Batu’s older brother Orda, and these came to be known as the left wing. Batu asserted his control over the Russian principalities after sacking the cities of Vladimir in 1238 and Kiev in 1240, forcing them to pay annual tribute and accept his nominees as princes.

Batu’s ulus stretched from the Ural River to the mouths of the Danube and the Carpathian Mountains. It exacted tribute from most of the Russian principalities and carried raids as far west as Poland and as far south as Iran and Bulgaria.

Starting with the conversion of Berke to Islam, the White Horde (or Blue Horde) made a traditional alliance with the Mamluks of Egypt against their common rival, the Il-Khans.

From the 1280s until 1299, the White Horde (or Blue Horde) was effectively under the control of two khans, the legitimate khans and Nogai Khan, a warlord and kingmaker, who made an alliance with the Byzantine Empire and invaded countries bordering the Blue Horde, particularly in the Balkans. Nogai’s pre-eminence was ended by the assertion of the legitimate Khan Toqta, and the Blue Horde reached the apex of its power and prosperity during the reigns of Uzbeg Khan (Öz Beg) and his son Jani Beg in the middle of the 14th century, when it intervened in the affairs of the disintegrating Ilkhanate.

The White Horde (or Blue Horde) remained strong from its foundation (around 1240) until the 1350s. Problems in the west of the horde led to the eventual losses of Wallachia, Dobruja, Moldavia and the western Ukraine and the vassal principalities west of Kiev, losing those lands to Lithuania after being defeated by its army in the Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, and Poland. The death of Jani Beg led to the Blue Horde entering into a prolonged civil war, with concurrent khans fighting each other and holding no real power. At the same time Mamai turned kingmaker in the Blue Horde. In this time, Muscovy seceded from Mongol overlordship (at least until the early 15th century). It was not until the coming of Tokhtamysh that the concurrent khans were removed. He briefly united the Blue Horde with the White Horde in 1380.

Left wing[edit]

Orda’s Ulus or more appropriately, the Left wing of the Golden Horde was one of the uluses within the Mongol Empire formed around 1225, after the death of Jochi when his son, Orda-Ichen (Орд эзэн, Lord Orda), inherited his father’s appanage by the Jaxartes. It was the eastern constituent part of the Golden Horde.[7][8]

Because Orda and his descendants ruled the left division of the Golden Horde, they were called Princes of the left wing (also left hand).[9] Initially it covered the western part of the territory ruled by the Jochids and included western Central Asia and south-western Siberia. The capital of the White Horde was originally at Lake Balkhash, but later moved to SygnaqKazakhstan on the Syr-Darya River.[10]

When Batu Khan sent a large Jochid delegation to Hulagu’s campaign in the Middle East, it included a strong contingent under Kuli, a son of Orda. However, suspicious deaths of the latter and other Jochid princes (c.1259) angered the rulers of the Golden Horde. During the Toluid Civil War over succession between Kublai and Ariq Böke from 1260 to 1264, the White Horde elites supported the latter. They also began to support the Ögedeid prince Kaidu because he was supported by the khans such as Berke and Möngke-Temür.

Since 1280, Orda’s successor, Konchi or Köchü, had allied with the Yuan Dynasty and the Ilkhanate, in return, they rewarded him. According to Rashid-al-Din Hamadani‘s account or H. H. Howorth’s analysis, Kunchi possessed the territory of Ghazna and Bamiyan under the suzerainty of either the Chagatai Khanate or the Ilkhanate.[11] Kunchi warned the Ilkhan Abagha of the upcoming invasion of Baraq (Chagatai Khan) in 1268. However, when the Borjigin princes, who operated on the Kublai Khan‘s behalf in Central Asia and later rebelled, fought against each other, they appealed to Kunchi whose response is not clear.

Marco Polo describes the Horde as extremely cold area, saying:

This king (Köchü) has neither city nor castle; he and his people live always either in the wide plains or among great mountains and valleys. They subsist on the milk and flesh of their cattle, and have no grain. The king has a vast number of people, but he carries on no war with anybody, and his people live in great tranquility. They have enormous numbers of cattle, camels, horses, oxen, sheep, and so forth.[12]

In 1299, the Left wing Khan, Bayan, was deposed by his cousin, Kobelek, who took assistance from Kaidu and Duwa.[13] By 1304, Bayan had reoccupied most of his ancestors’ lands. His horde began to herd around Syr-Darya, replacing the Shaybanids. Bayan’s troops included the Russian and Magyar soldiers.

Their khan, Chimtai, sent his brothers to take the Golden Horde throne during the Blue Horde‘s period of anarchy, (1359–1380). But they were all murdered before reaching any success. Members from White Horde (sometimes it is confused with the Blue Horde), Khizr, and his son or relative, Arab Shaykh, briefly took the throne of the Golden Horde, using their army.[14]

In 1375, Urus Khan, the eighth khan of the Left wing, became a contested khan of both the Blue Horde and the White Horde.[15] He extruded the members from the House of Khizr.[16] Urus died in 1377, and when his nephew Tokhtamysh wrested control of the White Horde from Urus’s son Timur-Malik in 1378,[17] he regained control of the Blue Horde as well. Thus, Toqtamish consolidated the two hordes, becoming the Khan of the Golden Horde.

After the defeat of Toqtamish in 1395-96, Kuruichik was appointed head of the White Horde by Tamerlane.[18] Since then families of Jochi’s sons, Tuqa-TimurShiban and Orda, began to merge with each other, establishing Uzbeg and Kazakh hordes. Among them, Kuruichik’s descendant, Borog, briefly asserted the throne of the Golden Horde in 1421.

After Baraq’s murder, the Horde divided into two parts with 2 khans – Mohammed and Mustafa. Mustafa reconquered the Horde, though, in Siberia appeared another threat of Abu’l-Khayr Khan. In 1446 the latter gained the victory over Mustafa, ending the existence of Orda’s Ulus (the left wing of the Golden Horde).


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